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Breast Cancer Screening - Book Report/Review Example

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The research entitled "Breast Cancer Screening: Women's Experiences of Waiting for Further Testing" by Patricia Pineault, RN, MSN aims to discuss the anxiety and stress that women who underwent abnormal screening mammography and help identify the type os social support needed by the patient appropriate for their anxiety level.
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Breast Cancer Screening
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Download file to see previous pages The researchers, using the quantitative approach, believe that knowledge can best be generated by breaking down a phenomenon into its different pieces and objectively measuring and examining each piece and its relationship to each other pieces.
Cancer accounts for considerable mortality and morbidity in both men and women. It is the second leading cause of death among people between the ages of 25 and 64 in the United States. The patterns of cancer types and incidences for men and women have changed during the past several decades. Men have a high incidence of cancer of the lung and bladder. In women, breast cancer is highest in incidence. Female clients may need to be reminded to perform monthly breast examinations in order to detect growth. (Fodde, 2002)
The nursing practice is affected with this increase in cancer rates, breast cancer among women, because they will encounter more cases of breast cancer patients and they need to be aware of the stress and anxiety that these patients are experiencing.
Most people need an explanation of the physical examination. The nurse should explain when and where it will take place, why it is important and what will happen during the examination. Cancer screening guidelines for asymptotic people for breast cancer (females) include monthly breast examination starting age 20, clinical breast examination every 3 years from age 20-40 and then annually beginning age 40. Mammogram should be done annually starting age 40 and over. (Hanahan, 2000)
Stress is a universal phenomenon. All people experience it. Patients with breast cancer experience a great amount of stress, anxiety, depression and fear because of their health situation. Stress can result from both positive and negative experience. For example, a bride preparing for her wedding, a graduate preparing to start a new job, and a husband concerned about caring for his wife and family following a diagnosis of cancer all experience stress reactions. (Seligman, 1990)
The concept of stress is important because it provides a way of understanding the person as a being who responds in totally (mind, body and spirit) to a variety of changes that take place in daily life.
Concept of Stress
Stress is a condition in which the person responds to changes in the normal balanced state. A stressor is any event or stimulus that causes an individual to experience stress. When a person faces stressors, responses are referred to as coping strategies, coping responses, or coping mechanisms. (Fodde, 2002)
Sources of Stress
There are many sources of stress. They can be broadly classified as internal or external stressors, or developmental or situational stressors. Internal stressors originate within a person, for example, cancer or feelings of depression. External stressors originate outside the individual. For example, a move to another city, a death in the family, or pressure from peers. (Ron de Kloet, 2005)
Developmental stressors occur at predictable times throughout an individual's life. Within each developmental stage, certain tasks must be achieved to prevent or reduce stress. For example, accepting changing physique for adolescents, choosing a career for young adult, accepting physical changes of aging for middle adult and accepting decreasing physical abilities and health.
Situational stressors are unacceptable and may occur at any time during life. Situational stress may be positive or negative. Examples of this type of stress ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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