I think we should start our topic by just asking a simple but important question what is a fiber optic cable A fiber optic cable is a cylindrical pipe. It may be up of plastic or glass a combination of glass and plastic…
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The phenomenon of guiding light through bent glass has been early given by Leonardo DaVinci in one of his notebooks. But, he has not been able to verify this assertion. What is known for certain is that total internal reflection of light in a beam of water, basically guided light, and was given by the physicist John Tyndall in either 1854 or 1870, depending upon which reference you consult. Tyndall showed that light could be bent around a corner while it traveled through a jet of pouring water. Using light for communications came after this. . In 1934 the first patent on guided optical communications over glass was obtained by AT &T. unfortunately, no materials were available at that time to fabricate a glass (or other type of transparent material) fiber optic cable with sufficiently low attenuation to make guided optical communications possible.
Between 1968 and 1970, experts who were working at a number of different academic, industrial and government laboratories dropped the attenuation of glass fiber optic cable from over 1000 dB/km to less than 20 dB/km. Corning patented its fabrication process for the cable. In the late 1980's and 1990's this progress increased with the even lower cost plastic fiber optic cable and Plastic Clad Silica (PCS). In last few years a number of oceanic fiber optic cables have been fabricated. One cable was fabricated in 1990. That was relatively non-controversial. However, as additional cables were introduced, the coastal fishing industry became increasingly concerned about the loss of fishing ground resulting from cable placement, and their liability should they come into contact with a cable. Another cable was fabricated in 1998. To represent their interests a number of coastal fishers formed a committee. After discussion on numerous issues, the fishers and the cable owner reached on a conclusion that has served as the basis for later agreements' between these two groups in Oregon.
Two concentric layers termed the core and the cladding are the basic composition of a fiber optic cable. These layers are shown in the following figure.
Fiber Optic Cable, 3 dimensional view and its basic cross section
Both core and cladding have different refraction indexes with the core having R1 and the cladding R2. Light is piped through the core. In Fiber optic cable an additional coating termed as jacket is also provided around the cladding. Core, cladding and jacket are all shown in the three dimensional view on the left side of above Figure. The jacket is usually made up of one or more layers of polymer. This jacket protects the core and cladding from shocks that might affect their optical or physical properties. It acts like a shock absorber. The jacket also provides protection from abrasions, solvents, Small oil
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The author states that in order to test fiber optic cables, many tests are conducted to ensure reliable connectivity. Some basic tests are highlighted that are associated with continuity testing, insertion loss and Optical time Domain Reflectometer. Continuity testing method involves continuous checking of broken fibers from one end to the other.
Basically, fiber optics refer to the cables or lines which contain optically pure glass used to transmit digital information signals. The bedrock of these cables is formed by this optically pure glass which is more or less as thin as a human hair but has astounding ability to carry digital information over far across corners of the world.
In this theory the light is used in the approximation of the light acceptance and also as a guideline property to optical fiber (Hecht 1999, pg. 12). The next theory describes light as being an electromagnetic wave which is known as mode theory or the wave representation approach.
Both fiber optic cable and coaxial cable falls under guided transmission media which provide a physical path for the propagation of the signal. Twisted pair was majorly used for all sorts of communication until the development of the coaxial cable which provided higher data rates over long distance (Nellist, John and Ellit, 12).
The end result is also analyzed in order to identify the reasons for the success of this solution.
It is evident from the case that the main issue for the employees was lack of easy access to the resources in the company. The other major issue was
However, there is overwhelming evidence to prove that indeed, mobile phones do not cause cancer. This paper seeks to prove that cell phones are safe for use and do not cause cancer.
Cell phones cannot cause cancer since the radio frequency they emit is weak
Moritz reports that CNN and MSNBC continuously covered the events approximately forty minutes after the incident commenced (Gross et al., 72). The professional codes of journalism were brought to question after news networks aired disturbing images from the
to the internet or having access has grown tremendously and it is estimated that the number of internet users currently stands at 4.5 billion globally having increased from 300 million 2000. The essay summarizes how internet access and usage has increased around the world.
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay
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