Nobody downloaded yet

Molecular Therapeutics - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary to essay on topic "Molecular Therapeutics"
The scientific journey of cyclooxygenase began as early as the 1930s when prostaglandins were first discovered in human semen (Bindra, 1977). Albeit, due to the relative instability and low concentration of prostaglandin found in the semen, it was difficult to clearly identify them for almost thirty years afterwards…
Download full paper
Molecular Therapeutics
Read TextPreview

Extract of essay "Molecular Therapeutics"

Download file "Molecular Therapeutics" to see previous pages... Later in 1970, the mechanism of prostaglandin biosynthesis was demonstrated to involve the formation of bicyclic peroxides or endoperoxides as the initial product of polyunsaturated fatty acid oxygenation. Prostaglandin endoperoxides were successfully isolated and the name 'cyclooxygenase' came into existence as a term that describes the enzyme that is responsible for this complex biochemical transformation (Lawrence et al 1999; Hamberg and Samuelson 1973).
Let us write or edit the essay on your topic "Molecular Therapeutics" with a personal 20% discount.. Try it now

According to Lawrence and his colleagues (1999), the chemical process catalysed by cyclooxygenase; the conversion of arachidonic acid, (which is known to be the precursor to prostaglandins), to Prostaglandin G2 (PGG2) involves the enzymatic removal of the 13-pro-S-hydrogen, giving rise to a Pentadienyl radical with maximal electron density at C-11 and C-15. Trapping of the carbon radical at C-11 with Oxygen produces a peroxyl radical, which when added to C-9 generates a cyclic peroxide and a carbon-centred radical at C-8. The double bond at C-12 become re-inforced by the C-8 radical, generating the bicyclic peroxide and an allylic radical with maximal electron density at C-13 and C-15. The carbon radical at C-15 is trapped with oxygen to form a peroxyl radical, which is reduced to prostaglandin G2.
Cyclooxygenase came t...
Prostaglandins were shown to be involved in a wide array of physiological and pathophysiological responses such as pain, inflammation, homeostasis, regulation of renal function and maintenance of the mucosal integrity of the stomach wall (Remmel et al 2003), their inhibition therefore spells the anti-inflammatory and analgesic utility of NSAIDs and also their adverse effects, such as gastrointestinal toxicity and bleeding.
However, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs happen to be the most widely used drugs in the treatment of pain and inflammation, their therapeutic effects was seen to stem from their ability to inhibit cyclooxygenase induced prostaglandin synthesis, which was also their major source of adverse side effects. The dilemma that ensued was how to separate the pharmacologic value of these drugs from the adverse effects.
In the course of the search for a specific inhibitor of the negative effects of prostaglandins, which could spare the positive effects while reducing the adverse effects, it was discovered that depending on the structure of the cyclooxygenase enzyme involved in their synthesis, prostaglandins could be separated into two groups (Green 2001). This led to the discovery of two different cyclooxygenase isozymens encoded by two genes with different protein pattern and distribution (Remmel, 2003; Lawrence et a 1999; Ouellet, 2001) with Cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) constitutively expressed in most cell types, including platelets while COX-2, though not found in healthy tissues of the body, was induced in response to proinflammatory and proliferative stimuli (Ouellet et al 2001) essentially in response to cytokines, endotoxins, mitogens and at times growth factor (Herschman, 1996) . Available body of evidence, therefore showed that the ...Download file "Molecular Therapeutics" to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document "Molecular Therapeutics"
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Molecular Therapeutics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words”, n.d.)
Molecular Therapeutics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1508988-molecular-therapeutics
(Molecular Therapeutics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 Words)
Molecular Therapeutics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 Words. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1508988-molecular-therapeutics.
“Molecular Therapeutics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1508988-molecular-therapeutics.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
Receptor pharmacology in 21st century therapeutics
Relentless research has led to the discovery of new synthetic drugs like barbiturates and syphilis curing arsenical compounds by scientists like Paul Ehrlich (Rang & Dale, 2012: 18). Further breakthroughs include the discovery of sulfonamides, which are the first antibacterial drugs and they were discovered by Gerhard Domagk, the development of penicillin by Florey and Chain based on Fleming’s work.
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay
The disease is also known as malignant neoplasm since the cells grow continuously without control forming malignant tumours (Wolinsky, Colson and Grinstaff 2012, p.444). Cancer cell fail to follow the normal cell cycle, whereby after sometime the cell needs to die, a process called apoptosis (Blanco Hsiao, Mann, Landry, Meric-Bernstam and Ferrari 2011, p.342).
10 Pages(2500 words)Essay
Molecular biology cloning and Brachyury gene
Cloning entails the intensification of specific DNA segments, leading to the buildup of large amounts of similar DNA fragments, which may be utilized for numerous functions. Conventional molecular cloning uses tailored DNA cloning vectors, which are usually derived from spherical DNA molecules identified as bacterial plasmids.
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
Suppose that a particular length fragment, called A, has a variant A1 that is only found in 1% of the population. Similarly, suppose that the fragment B has a variant B1 found in 4% of the population, and C has a variant C1 found in 2.5% of the
5 Pages(1250 words)Speech or Presentation
Molecular Identity
These are all sodium/potassium-coupled chloride cotransporters described succinctly below. They can be functionally classified broadly into four groups according to the cation coupling to the chloride ion, the stoichiometry of the transport process and the relative sensitivities to inhibitors.
12 Pages(3000 words)Essay
BMS3038: Human and Medical Genetics 2 questions
Neoplasm is defined by a British oncologist Willis as “Abnormal mass of tissue, the growth of which exceeds and is uncoordinated with that of the normal tissue and persists in the same excessive manner after cessation of the stimuli which evoked the
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay
Bioprocessing and industrial Biotechnology
The need for the new pharmaceutical products that effectively reduce the disease or cure them is also much necessary. Similarly the cost involved for the production of these pharmaceuticals is also more important. So the production
11 Pages(2750 words)Essay
Therapeutics and diagnostics reasoning
There are numerous steps in a process of diagnostic reasoning. According to Wilkinson, there are four steps of diagnostic reasoning, these steps consists of Interpreting these entails Identifying significant cues, clustering cues and identifying data, drawing
14 Pages(3500 words)Essay
Molecular Biology
Monoclonal antibodies can be obtained by intraperitoneal injection into mice and collection of ascetic fluid produced. Since it is difficult to to remove antigenicity from the mouse, in vitro
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay
Cancer at the molecular level
As genes are the basic control machine of the cell, alteration of any kind may bring devastating consequences, or malignancy. Moreover, in normal cells damage of any kind is taken care by the repair system but in cancer cells, the repair function is altered, hence damaged DNA is not repaired, occurs, cells divide continuously without displaying senescence, generating a series of abnormal cells (Alberts, 2007).
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Essay on topic Molecular Therapeutics for FREE!
logo footer
Contact us:
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • StudentShare App Store
  • StudentShare Google play
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • Miscellaneous
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us