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Performance enhancing drug tests are stricter for male than for female athletes. There is a list of substances banned in males only. Differences between the reporting level for men and women are also acknowledged. The confusion over the nandrolone issue is exacerbated by claims that low concentrations of metabolites conferred no performance -enhancing effect and are due to the contamination of supplements. This conclusion from a single untimed urine sample could not be substantiated; the possibility that the result arose from the long-term use by injection of nandrolone may seem unlikely in the present climate of testing but evidence to the contrary had to be unequivocal (Dean, 2000). The number of positive test results has increased dramatically in recent years, but still, researcher admit that differences in male and female constitution prevent laboratories to identify illicit substances. OTC drugs, such as ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, are relatively less potent and non-selective than other stimulants, hence their availability without prescription. Following Bowers (1997) this lack of selectivity, with a concomitant likelihood of side-effects, especially if used in supratherapeutic doses, makes them less desirable as potential performance -enhancing drugs, since no improvement in performance has been found in the few research studies on these drugs.
Another argument is that women may have illnesses that require them to take particular drugs. It indicates an increasing trend in its use as a performance -enhancing drug, since its pharmacological properties are likely to have adverse, rather than positive, effects on performance in most sports. Statistical results prove that women swimmers perform much better than men because of inadequate drug tests and differences between male and female constitution.
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From gladiators to chariot racers, they all used some form of herb mixture to enhance their performance in sports by preventing fatigue and injuries. These extracts were made from mushroom extracts or plants seeds that are still used up to date in the making of either liquid or tablet performance enhancements. Sports people have used PEDs for a long time since the Greek and Roman age. During earlier years, coaches provided their sports men with their own recipes that included mixtures of strychnine.
The use of performance-enhancing drugs in the sports area has been in existence since the ancient Maya and Greece (Jeffrey, Jose, and Douglas 12). Performance potions were used by the Greeks to enhance their abilities, while cocoa leaves were used by the Maya for the same purpose as the Greeks’.
Proponents of the use of drugs to improve performance state that it improves physical and mental versatility, and this can be in no way harmful. However, the opponents state that human beings are intelligent enough as they are and have made many strides without aid. Aiding this advancement using drug use would lower the value of any work done by an individual. This means that the use of drugs would reduce the importance of hard work and reduce the impact of many earned successes.
Athletes will not stop using them just because they are not legal. They will just become sophisticated in hiding the use of performance enhancing drugs to avoid detection. Athletes are very competitive and they will always seek for ways to improve their performance whatever it takes and that includes taking performance enhancing drugs.
Good discipline and perseverance gives momentum to athletic performance in the public eye which is manifestation of practice, precision and talent.This pinnacle of performance is reached by victory or defeat, joy and sorrow as witnessed on the field by the fans, organizers, team members and by the individual participant. Success is the moment of euphoria marked by honor and success. The chains of followers are linked with the path traveled by a successful athlete or sportsperson which makes them a role model for the masses.
Performance enhancing drugs have been a bane in the field of sports for a very long time, as athletes have tried to gain unfair advantage through its use, and suffered due to the side effects. Two factors have led to a belief that
The author states that the most common performance-enhancing drugs are Creatine, Anabolic steroids, and Steroid precursors. Creatine is a compound that occurs in the body naturally and also is sold as a supplement. The major use of Creatine is to enhance the recovery post workout and expand the muscles volume.
History proves that those athletes who have previously used these drugs have by far much outperformed their expectations. This is a clear indication that the drugs can help to enhance speed and provide better athlete world results. On the other hand, the
The ways the prisoners adjust to life in prison differ and that significantly affects their lives. Often, the social characteristics of detainees and the realities of confinement do not dawn well in individuals, hence most resort to violent behaviour
It is known that bullying was always popular among teenagers. Along with the development of the Internet and, in particular, developing social networks and bullying in the online environment. This tendency affects the mental health of students and fraught with negative consequences.
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