StudentShare
Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Search
Go to advanced search...
Free

Payola - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
Simply uttering the word 'payola' can conjure up images of shadowy figures with a fist full of payoffs greasing the palms of corruption and greed. The word payola originated by combining the word payoff with Rock-ola, the jukebox that made rock and roll famous…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER94.9% of users find it useful
Payola
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Payola"

Payola: The Scandalous Roots Simply uttering the word 'payola' can conjure up images of shadowy figures witha fist full of payoffs greasing the palms of corruption and greed. The word payola originated by combining the word payoff with Rock-ola, the jukebox that made rock and roll famous. It is portrayed as a period in rock history that was dominated by high rolling record companies and greedy disc jockeys willing to sell air-time to the highest bidder. The money was certainly a part of it, but payola did not originate with rock and roll. Rock and roll merely became a target for racist attitudes, a parental fear of adolescent rebellion, and a major music agency obsessed with controlling the recording industry.
Payola goes back to the 1920s and the days of vaudeville and continued through the 1940s with the big band era (Hornberger). Paying a station to play a record was legal as long as the disc jockey notified the listeners that the airtime was purchased. This was often overlooked for decades until the era of rock and roll. Up until 1950, the American Society of Composers Authors and Publishers (ASCAP) controlled nearly all the music in the dancehalls, hotels, radio, and theaters. Their offices were in New York City and the directors had total control of the content. They would not allow membership for 'black' or 'hillbilly' artists (DiMaggio 608). Several networks split from ASCAP due to their rates and racist policies and in 1939 they formed Broadcast Music Inc. (BMI).
After World War II BMI set about signing the black and hillbilly artists that ASCAP had refused to work with. This core of musical outcasts would form the genesis of rock and roll. Teenagers were hungry for rock and the 45-RPM record made it accessible. By the early 1950s major BMI labels were turning out 100 new singles a week (Cartwright). DJs, suffocated with new recordings, would be paid by the record companies to promote a record. This was nothing new or unusual in the business. However, BMI was growing larger and politically correct ASCAP was losing market share. ASCAP despised the people that played rock and asked the Congress to investigate and enforce the rule on public notification of purchased airtime. Parental fear of rock and roll and the undercurrent of national racism made rock an easy target for Congress.
After a lengthy investigation, scores of DJs lost their jobs, their future, and their reputation. National figure Alan Freed refused to cooperate with the investigation and received a six-month suspended sentence. He never worked again and died of alcoholism in 1965 (Cartwright). Dick Clark was implicated but made a deal to testify and sell his interests in the music business in return for a lenient sentence.
Payola still exists and probably will as long as there is a profit in getting a song on the radio. In 1998, Limp Bizkit paid an Oregon station $5,000 to play its record 100 times in a 5-week period (Cartwright). This led to a sold out concert, wider coverage, and launched their national success. The payola scandal of the 50s was little more than business as usual. It was the racist attitudes of ASCAP and the fear of radical teen rebellion that brought the issue before the public.

Works Cited
Cartwright, Robin. "What's the Story on the Radio Payola Scandal of the 1950s." The Straight Dope. 31 Aug. 2004. Chicago Reader. 20 Feb. 2007 .
DiMaggio, Paul. "Review of The Production of Culture in the Music Industry: The ASCAP-BMI Controversy." Administrative Science Quarterly 32.4 (1987): 607-09. JSTOR. 20 Feb. 2007.
Hornberger, Jacob G. "Racism, Control, and Rock and Roll." Freedom Daily. Oct. 1990. Future Freedom Foundation. 20 Feb. 2007 Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Payola Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words”, n.d.)
Payola Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1508229-payola
(Payola Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words)
Payola Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1508229-payola.
“Payola Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1508229-payola.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Payola

The Music Industry: Competition Law in the Case of Live Nation Entertainment

...?The Music Industry: Competition Law in the Case of Live Nation Entertainment [ID The connection between record labels, artists, concert and entertainment promoters and hosts, radio distribution, consumers and record stores has always been a tug-of-war. Everything from software piracy and bootlegging to payola have been caused by this tension. The Live Nation Entertainment merger and the Justice Department conditions imposed thereof will have complex ramifications throughout the industry. The merger began after years of virtually utter dominance of the concert ticket industry by Ticketmaster (US v. TicketMaster and Live Nation Inc, p.5). Ticketmaster's fee charges are added to the cost of the ticket for the consumer, though it does share...
4 Pages(1000 words)Research Paper

Rock and Roll History

... of her parents. Despite the ill-fillings it arose, rock and roll definitely changed the American perspective, introducing new facets to the society. The popularity of rock and roll eventually declined, due probably to the popular singers getting out of the scene. A tragic plane crash in 1959 killed big names of Buddy Holly, The Big Bopper and Ritchie Valens. Elvis Presley on the other hand also chose to leave the scene and join the army, Little Richard decided on an early retirement from the music industry to a quieter life as a preacher, Jerry Lewis and Chuck Berry were prosecuted and the payola scandal broke out which also included Alan Freed. The scandal laid claims to using bribery and corruption in their transactions in promotions...
4 Pages(1000 words)Research Paper

Parole

...Parole Parole Criminal justice system is made up of s and practices that seek to sanction individuals who violate laws through rehabilitation efforts and criminal penalties, as well as maintaining social control by putting in place measures that deter and mitigate crime. Over the years, incarceration has been considered as the most appropriate way of sanctioning individuals who violate laws and rehabilitating the same individuals. Also, incarceration has been viewed as the best way of keeping those who are threat to public safety and social order away from others. However, there has been a consensus among the players within the criminal justice system that incarceration is not the most appropriate measure to all offenders... Parole Criminal...
7 Pages(1750 words)Essay

Pamela and Anti-Pamela

...Pamela and Anti-Pamela The present paper aims to make a comparative analysis of two pioneer novels in the history of English literature including Pamela (1740) by Samuel Richardson and its parody-cum-critic Anti-Pamela (1741) by Eliza Haywood. The main objective behind making a comparative analysis of both the remarkable works includes the level of skills and proficiencies both the novelists observe while depicting the social norms and cultural values had been in vogue during the first half of 18th century. In addition, the paper will also explore which of the authors is justified in his claim in a situation where both of them portray quite opposite scenario of early 18th century through their works. Hence, the paper will serve... and...
8 Pages(2000 words)Research Paper

The Seeds of the Arab-Israeli Conflict

... the government get involved in such immoral activities hence leading to weakening of governing (Rollins 13). The corruption cases build over time and integrate themselves into political system mostly through direct payola. This leads to weakening of important government sectors such as security, financial and economic. As result, the involved people take part in controlling of the same government sectors. This grows over time to a high degree of threatening or overthrowing the government. Money laundering is another threat posed by transnational movement of people. Money laundering is a crime that is mostly committed by terrorists all over the world (Zagaris 508). It involves disguising the originality of the money they acquire through...
1 Pages(250 words)Assignment

The Grateful Dead Bands Impact on Their Fans

... perform mellow songs like country or bluegrass, the inappropriate behaviours that go with the culture of their group was questionable in the eyes of society. Lynxwiler and Gay (70) provide a short history of how people viewed rock, rap, hiphop and other loud music adolescents seem to gravitate to. Anti-music organizations stemmed from movements against rock music which was believed to have a sinful impact on the moral development of children (78). Moral crusaders included mostly conservative religious groups which led in record burnings and public sermons (McDonald:296). Their acts fueled public debates that went beyond morality issues pointing towards deviant behavior expressed through payola scams, juvenile delinquency and drug abuse...
6 Pages(1500 words)Research Paper

Radio and the Music Industry

...) An infrequently talked about yet very real issue in the radio/music industry relationship is payola. “Payola, the term used to describe the pay-off that artistes give to persons in the media to ensure that their music gets played on the radio, or that they get favourable reviews and articles written about them in the press, is not always on the form of cash - some media workers ask for items like high-tech gadgets, cell phones, expensive jewellery, and trips to exotic locations’ (Henry 2006, para. 6). This unethical practice and/or, depending of the individual laws of a particular country illegal practice of paying a radio station, either through cash or gifts, for giving airtime to play certain music is said to be a widely accepted...
63 Pages(15750 words)Dissertation

Social communication

..., James Dean, Brooklyn’s got a winning team/Davy Crockett, Peter Pan, Elvis Presley, Disneyland/Bardot, Budapest, Alabama, Krushchev/Princess Grace, “Peyton Place,” trouble in the Suez CHORUS Little Rock, Pasternak, Mickey Mantle, Kerouac/Sputnik, Chou En-Lai, “Bridge on the River Kwai”/Lebanon, Charles de Gaulle, California baseball/Starkweather, homicide, children of thalidomide/Buddy Holly, “Ben Hur,” Space Monkey, Mafia/Hula hoops, Castro, Edsel is a no-go/U-2, Syngman Rhee, Payola and Kennedy/Chubby Checker, “Psycho,” Belgians in the Congo CHORUS Hemingway, Eichmann, Stranger in a Strange Land/Dylan, Berlin, Bay of Pigs invasion/Lawrence of Arabia, British Beatlemania/Ole Miss, John Glenn, Liston beats Patterson/Pope Paul, Malcolm X...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Lesson 13 discussion and assignment

...llion for first time in history in 1950 2. Supreme Court issued their landmark decision stating that ‘separate educational facilities are inherently unequal’ Lesson 4 Artists Chuck Berry Little Richard Buddy Holly Albums/Songs Tutti Fruitti Maybellene Roll Over, Beethoven Music Technologies Columbia University installs RCA Mark II the first programmable electronic synthesizer in 1957. Historical Events 1. Soviets launch Sputnik 1, the first man-made satellite to orbit Earth in 1957. 2. Congress investigated the practice of payola and disk jockeys Alan Freed and Dick Clark were called to testify before the Congressional committee in 1959-60. Lesson 5: Artists: 1. Ray Charles 2. Sam Cooke 3. Chubby Checker Album/Song 1. What’d I Say 2....
2 Pages(500 words)Assignment

Death Penalty Subject of Debate in United States

...Death penalty or capital punishment has been a major issue of controversy for several years. While thirty countries have abolished it since 1990, China, the Democratic Republic of Congo, the United States, and Iran remain major executioners in the world (Derechos, n.d). China has performed more than 3400 executions in 2004 which amounts to more than 90% of worldwide executions (Wikipedia). US performed 60 executions in 2005. Some consider it an inhuman punishment, while others feel a murder warrants nothing less than death for the murderer. People argue their point on various grounds, like the moral, philosophical, religious and the human rights. Debate continues whether it is an appropriate form of punishment and this paper... penalty or...
7 Pages(1750 words)Case Study

August Jose Ramon Pinochet Ugarte

...August Jose Ramon Pinochet Ugarte was a member of the military and a political leader in Chile for decades. Between 1973 and 1974, he was the President of the Government Junta of Chile, which was the legislative and executive branch of government in Chile before the overthrown of the government in 1974. After the overthrow, which was led by Pinochet, it became merely the legislative body until the country once again became democratic. Pinochet led the military coup that occurred in Chile during 1974 and after this occurred, he was guilty of oppressing any political foes that he had in a blatant violation of human rights. His reign in Chile is also synonymous with liberal and neo-liberal economic reforms that occurred... Jose Ramon Pinochet...
13 Pages(3250 words)Assignment

Domestic Violence and Developmental Psychology

...Domestic Violence and Developmental Psychology Psychology can be applied from two perspective axis. The vertical axis can be behavioral psychology,psicoanalysis, humanist psychology, or transpersonal psychology (spiritual psychology). The horizontal axis is developmental psychology since it deals with the different stages of a lifespan of anybody. It is like a poem, which is vertical to time, and a short-story, which is horizontal to time. The same comparison can be made between psychology and literature. In this paper these perspectives will be taken into consideration, and they help to understand why there is a mixture of developmental psychology with humanistic psychology. The Centre for Children & Families in the Justice...
11 Pages(2750 words)Assignment

Potential Benefits of International Trade

... Content Outline I. Introduction (a) Definition (b) Background II. The Reason Why Countries Take Part in International Trade (a) Major Commodities in Today’s International Trade and Economic Gains Arising From it (b) Reasons Compelling Countries to Place Restrictions in International Trade III. Conclusion I. Introduction (a) Definition The expression international trade refers to an exchange of commodities across boundaries of nations. Two major terms are used to describe international trade (that’s imports and exports). Imports are services and goods bought from other countries while exports are the services and goods sold to nations or individuals of foreign countries. (b) Background It’s estimated that the international... Content...
6 Pages(1500 words)Coursework

Juvenile Delinquency and Education: A Comparison of Public and Private Education

...Juvenile Delinquency and Education Introduction and ment of the Problem The question of juvenile misbehaviour and crime was not taken seriously until modern times. It was till the eighteenth century that children were regarded as non persons. They were neither recognized nor received any special treatment from either the state or society. The concept of discipline was at most a violent treatment of reinforcing specific norms acceptable in society. Perhaps a reason for that was that child mortality rates were high. It was not considered feasible to form attachments with children. They were left up to nature and the survival of the fittest approach. However, at the end of the eighteenth century, the age of “The Enlightenment... Delinquency and ...
6 Pages(1500 words)Research Proposal

The Development and Evolution of the Music Industry

... musicians and those that are interested in the industry. The second component that is providing new facets to musicians and those that are working within the industry is from the digital revolution that is providing listeners and musicians with access to music from different means. Instead of the subjection of radio stations that have payola, or programs that promote one specific type of musician based on monetary means, there is an association with newer ways of finding music. The Internet, global resources and various developments that are used specifically for the promotion of independent artists are now being used by several as a means of working into the industry without going through the Big Five. This emergence is creating a new...
9 Pages(2250 words)Term Paper

The Shawshank Redemption:A Place Where Humanity Is Put to Test

...The Shawshank Redemption – a place where humanity is put to test. While a prison is normally taken as a restraint on one’s freedom, it is also supposed as the first step to correction of one’s offenses or crimes. The movie Shawshank Redemption directed by Frank Darabont, and released in 1994 reveals the brutal reality and corruption within the four walls of the Shawshank State Penitentiary operated by Warden Samuel Norton. The movie is based upon the work Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption by Stephen King. Despite being a place for resurrection, the prisoners often find them facing harsh situation which are unjust. the movie centers around Tim Robbins enacting as Andy Dufrense, a banker accused for killing his wife and her... Shawshank...
6 Pages(1500 words)Movie Review

Staff Sexual Misconduct in Community Corrections: A Negation of Justice

...Staff Sexual Misconduct in Community Corrections: A Negation of Justice Full The historical development of community corrections has illustrated that its emergence is in response to the society’s call for a compassionate and more humane criminal justice grounded on the belief that not all offenders are evils and thus can be rehabilitated to be successfully reintegrated into the community. However, this noble purpose of community corrections is proven complex to achieve as there are various obstacles to its achievement. One of which is the increasing reports on staff sexual misconduct. Due to the manipulative and coercive nature of SSM exacerbated by the culture of silence, fear and shame predominating community corrections... Sexual...
11 Pages(2750 words)Thesis

Americas Prison System

... The Punitive Prison System in America The rate of imprisonment has grown in the United s in such a sustained and dramatic fashion over the past three decades that it has become necessary to begin essays with a statement on “mass” incarceration. By 2006, the rate of incarceration hit 0.1% for women and 0.9% for men, with the total number of prisoners in state and federal prisons slightly exceeding 1.6 million. Larger increases are also seen in the number of persons under correctional supervision. Such include individuals housed in prisons and jails and those living within the community on probate and parole (Alexander and West, 117; and Bonds, 418).The dramatic expansion in the correctional population was majorly the result... The Punitive...
13 Pages(3250 words)Case Study

The Impact of Absenteeism on the Bottom Line of an Organization

...A Business Report on the Impact of Absenteeism on the Bottom Line of an Organisation Table of Contents Introduction 2 Research question 2 Research objectives 2 Literature review 3 Research methodology 4 Research method 4 Sampling method 4 Data collection 4 Discussion of findings 5 Demographics of the research participants 5 Common form of absenteeism 6 Direct impacts of absenteeism on the bottom line of your supermarket 7 Indirect impacts of absenteeism on the bottom line of your supermarket 7 Conclusion 8 References 9 Hacket, R. (1989). Work attitudes and employee absenteeism: A synthesis of the literature. Journal of Occupational Psychology. Volume 62, (3), pages 235–248, 10 Johnson, C. (2011). The impact... Business Report on ...
7 Pages(1750 words)Assignment

Characteristic of Omega-3 Fatty Acid

...Research Paper on Omega-3 Fatty Acid Introduction: First of all, omega3 is type of fat that is very important for human’s body. So the scientific name of omeg3 is omeg3 fatty acids or n-3 fatty acids or fish oil. It is an essential nutrients for health and most of health experts stress that it is necessary for human. In addition, our bodies need of this kinds of omega 3 fatty acids. Omega-3 has one importance of acids called alpha –linoleic acid or ALA that it is vitamins and it could not produce by our bodies but we can have this acid by omega-3. Experts proved that the omega-3 fatty acids have a beneficial effect in our health (Calviello and Serini, 2010). According to “Understanding the power of omega-3 (OP-ed... Paper on Omega-3 Fatty ...
12 Pages(3000 words)Research Paper
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Payola for FREE!

Contact Us