Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Go to advanced search...

Reform Movement paper - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
The reform movements in education pertaining to teaching science and math regenerated new methods in making mathematical and science-related concepts concrete, and therefore, more understandable. Teaching for understanding is a concept that embodies the teaching of math and science, referring to instruction that focuses on student thinking, powerful scientific and mathematical ideas, and offers equitable learning opportunities to students (Gamoran, et al., 1992)…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER99% of users find it useful
Reform Movement paper
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Reform Movement paper"

TEACHING MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE: IMPACTS BY REFORM MOVEMENTS The reform movements in education pertaining to teaching science and math regeneratednew methods in making mathematical and science-related concepts concrete, and therefore, more understandable. Teaching for understanding is a concept that embodies the teaching of math and science, referring to instruction that focuses on student thinking, powerful scientific and mathematical ideas, and offers equitable learning opportunities to students (Gamoran, et al., 1992). The key challenges to supporting teaching for understanding include aligning purposes, perceptions, and commitments; providing resources to classroom teachers; and sustaining change (Gamoran, et al., 1992). The reform movements were able to allow teachers and resources to undertake collaborative efforts pertaining to Teaching for understanding science and math.
Contemporary math and science teaching is now focused on children's psychological development that allows for the alignment of their learning capacities. In enabling an easier understanding of math concepts, the teacher must elicit, build upon, connect student knowledge, and be able to build learning paths and networks of knowledge in the classroom (Treaqust, 1996). A constructivist idea in learning math and science is what is being introduced by reform movements in both subject matters. The reform movements gave way to efforts pertaining to investigating students' conceptions, improving teaching and curricula, and enhancing teacher education in science and mathematics contexts (Treaqust, 1996). Unlike the traditional manner of teaching math and science, attention to math and science curricula was not emphasized, as well as concretizing students' learning.
A post-modern conception of teaching math and science through concrete objects that facilitate formation of abstract concepts was developed. Montessori's philosophy has been the ground of several contemporary constructivist theorists pertaining to how since and math can be best taught to children in school. The development of manipulatives has been the result of this, constructed in the notion that before a child is able to reach the abstract and analytical level of learning; he has to go through the concrete stage first. Again, the use of manipulatives was absent in the traditional method of teaching and learning math and science.
Montessori believed that learners construct knowledge and meaning for themselves as they learn individually and socially. Traditional methods did not have this embodiment, as they did not consider that the learning process is one that may be enjoyed and learned socially with fellow learners. Constructivist learning through the formation of abstract concepts is applied in the usage of concrete objects (Edwards 2002), and discovery learning and interest-support are promoted by such usage. It is stated that the usage of concrete objects in math and science must be able to heighten the learner's level of learning, from concrete up to abstract sequence (Howden 1986), a process not seen by traditional methods. When pupils have an understanding of the concrete level of understanding a mathematical concept, they can link this foundation to abstract mathematical learning activities (Gronlund and Helm 2000). They develop tangible understanding of math concepts and skills through the concrete-to representational-to abstract sequence of instruction. When learners are supported to develop a concrete level of understanding for a mathematical or science concept, they can use this foundation to reconcile their representational understanding of math and science concepts with their abstract understanding.

Edwards, C. P. (2002) Three approaches from Europe: Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia: ECRP Vol. 4 No. 1.
Gamoran, A., Anderson, C. W., Quiroz, Pamela Ann, Secada, Walter G., Williams, Tona, and Ashmann, Scott (1992) Transforming teaching in math and science: how schools and districts can support change. New York: Teachers College Press.
Gronlund, G. and Helm, J. H. (2000) Linking standards and engaged learning in the early years: ECRP Vol. 2 No. 1
Howden, H. (1986) The role of manipulatives in learning mathematics: Insights into Open Education. Vol. 19, Issue 1.
Treaqust, D. F. (1996) improving teaching and learning in science and mathematics. New York: Teachers College Press. Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Reform Movement paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words”, n.d.)
Reform Movement paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words. Retrieved from
(Reform Movement Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words)
Reform Movement Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words.
“Reform Movement Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Reform Movement paper

Standards as Reform Paper

...? Education reform is one of the major concerns in the society today. There are many educators and advisory groups are emphasizing the need to introduce to standards to improve the quality of education for all students. It was contended that "Something is fundamentally wrong with America's system of education, too few children develop the academic skills they need to develop, and too many children leave school without having developed the skills, attitudes, and habits of mind that will equip them for life in the twenty-first century" (Schlechty 2001, p. 2). The national commission on excellence in education had published a report A Nation at Risk in 1983 which initiated the first steps for education reforms and changes. This paper...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Legislation Reform Psychology Research Paper

...?Legislation Reform  Healthcare is one of the issues that have elicited much debate and controversy in recent months all across the country (Reid, 2009). The Obama administration has been at the fore front trying to bring changes to the healthcare system in America by introducing certain legislations to deal with the ever challenging issue of healthcare problems. One of the legislations that the government has been working on is the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. This is a federal piece of legislation that seeks to streamline the healthcare system so that all Americans can access quality medical attention if and when they need it (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011). Although this law was created with the best...
3 Pages(750 words)Research Paper

Movement Analysis/Research Paper

Additionally the regimes have severely constrained economic space. SCO seeks to ensure that the authoritarian regimes are monitored. SCO attempts to make use of nonviolent actions to maintain a peaceful environment and regional security. SCO involves itself in activities aimed at strengthening cooperation of the member states in curbing terrorism activities. This paper will analyze SCO, which is an activist movement. The paper will discuss whether SCO has made any achievements in strengthening the security of central Asian region through nonviolent means such as enhancing cooperation of the member states. For a long period, the Asian region has been characterized by numerous terrorism activities. This has resulted to a notion tha...
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper

Health Care Reform Reaction Paper

...? Health Care Reform Reaction Paper Health Care Reform Reaction Paper Factors impacting health care delivery and influencing nursing practice Health care delivery is one of the most contentious topics today. The government and other health stakeholders are of the opinion that the country’s health care delivery is not up to par, primarily as a result of a number of mitigating circumstances. In the US, many people with or without health insurance fail to seek care due to factors such as financial difficulties due to the high cost of health care in the country (Brassard, 2013). Even with coverage, the cost of medicines or co-payments is a major deterrent of access to health care. Language barrier also influences delivery of health care...
4 Pages(1000 words)Term Paper


... 24 July 2007 TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT The temperance movement made efforts to significantly limit the number of alcohol intake or even limit its existence and availability among minors. In most Islamic nations, temperance is a component of their religion. In most nations that believe and obey in the laws of Jesus Christ, types of Christianity inspired by other religious perspectives on being holy have significantly helped it at certain occasions. Particularly, religious or Biblical perspectives have often been the driving force for temperance, even though other hidden organizations that are pro-temperance also are present (McAdam 4). Majority of the largest pro-temperance groups in all nations have been females, often as component...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Reform And Its Meaning In The Society

...Reform Introduction To my own definition of the Matter ‘Reform’ meaning to embark on a certain movement primarily with an aim of bringing newdimension to an already deteriorated affairs. These include removing abuse and injustice and many other vices coming across many affairs. It is a campaigns which is aim to break the jinx of corrupt malpractices and social abuse. The Political movement Reform has been for a long in history. One of the Examples ought to be cited is the Women Suffrage movement in the United States of America, 1848. “The first American womens rights convention was held in 1848 at Seneca Falls, New York. At that convention, the delegates adopted a platform that called for a broad range of social, economic, legal...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Health reform (research paper)

...Health Reform The Health Policy Issue The comprehensive health care reform of the of Massachusetts was implemented due to concern that some low-income individuals would go from being uninsured to being underinsured (Long 2008). Although the overall objective of the Massachusetts’ comprehensive health care reforms was to make sure that the coverage would be adequate and affordable, this necessitates residents to obtain health insurance that does not provide minimal financial protection (Long 2008). The goals of the health reform are explicitly defined as: to have expanded coverage, to ensure customer satisfaction and preferences, to focus on value between providers and insurers, and to minimize the burden on tax payers (Haislmaier 2006...
12 Pages(3000 words)Essay

Reform movement

Selfish needs of certain people especially if they are in power often result in backlash and revolt. Such revolts arise mostly because of suppression and lack of freedom. There have been many revolutions throughout the world which has changed the world for better.
Abolitionist movement is one such revolution which arose in 1800’s with a motive to achieve emancipation for all slaves and to end all kind of racial discrimination in Unites States of America. People who supported the movement or advocated immediate end to slavery were known as abolitionist.
Abolitionist movement which had started centuries ago was not new to the American people as many African slaves used to kill either themselves or their captors in order to r...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Health Reform Plan Paper

...Running head: Why did the Clinton Health Reform Plan in the 1990s never pass? When Bill Clinton delivered a popular speech in September 1993, the main agenda of the proposed plan entailed an enforced mandate for employers to give health insurance coverage to their employees (Bowman, 1994). This was to be done through competitive and closely regulated health maintenance organizations (Bowman, 1994). Most critics of the reform agree in three interrelated reasons for its failure: politicization, bad timing, and human error. One critical reason for the failure inheres in the fact that health care is a too big, dangerous, and convoluted area to delve in. When Clinton administration took office, it did not prioritize health reform per se...
2 Pages(500 words)Research Paper

Research Paper - Health Care Reform

... Negative Consequences of the Changes of the Health Care Reform The main work of health carereform is to discuss changes and creation of most important policies of health and delivery of health care in a certain locality. The reforms try to diminish health care costs, improve health care quality and give the population available good medical and health care. Decrease in Market Updates Except for the physicians, many Medicare providers receive their yearly market update on payments based on either the growth in product and services costs. Decrease of the market updates for outpatient and inpatient services are expressed at putting aside more than $150 billion in a period of ten years under the health care transformation (Elmendorf, 192...
2 Pages(500 words)Assignment

Free Movement of Labour in the EU

... of the Future Membership of Poland in the European Union. CPCFPU Occasional Paper No. 45. Online at. Guild, E. (1999) `The Europe Agreement: the right of establishment in the Central and Eastern European agreements, in Guild, E. (ed.) The Legal Framework and Social Consequences of Free Movement of Persons in the European Union. The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 127-38. Jileva, E. (2002) `Larger than the European Union: the emerging EU migration regime and enlargement, in Lavenex, S. and Ucarer, E. (eds) Externalities of Integration: The Wider Impact of the EUs Migration Regime. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 75-91. Koslowski, R. (2004) `European Union migration regimes: emerging, enlarging, and deteriorating, Journal of Ethnic...
12 Pages(3000 words)Coursework

Tax Reform Situation in American

The tax process has been reformed, changed, developed, organized and is now one of the most complicates codes of law in the world. Some of the reforms underway are still being debated and they must be examined to show how the reform process takes place in America.

Overall, American taxation involves payments from individuals to four levels of government depending on where they reside. Taxes are due to the local government i.e. district or country, to the regional bodies like schools and utility providers, to the state government and finally, to the federal government. Other than general income tax on companies and private persons, the American government collects taxes and contributions for Social Security, Medicare and...
7 Pages(1750 words)Assignment

Company Law Reform Bill

... 170-187 of the Companies Bill 2006 carry a major portion of such codification Other changes are made which affect directors, including simplification of the law relating to transactions between a company and its directors. This paper would discuss the changes brought about in the new legislation in respect of directors’ duties and how these changes present an altered and improved stance over the hitherto adopted practice of deriving directors’ duties through interpretation of case laws. The Stance of the Company Law Reform Bill versus the Case Laws The governments intended to plain speak on the directors’ duties so as to make the law more “consistent, certain, accessible and comprehensible”. This was achieved through a statutory...
14 Pages(3500 words)Coursework

Freedom Summer of 1964 and Its Relationship with the Civil Rights Movement

The other organizations which participated in this Registration campaign were the Council of Federated Organization (COFO) in league with the National Association for Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), the Southern Christian Leadership Confederation (SCLC) and the Students Non-Violent Coordination Committee (SNCC). During this campaign, large groups of African American people, supported by around 1000 white volunteers, braved the rains in order to enter the Forrest Country Courthouse to register their Voting Rights. Around 30 Summer schools were also established during this Freedom Summer Campaign in various parts of Mississippi town in order to educate the black minorities, since, due t...
11 Pages(2750 words)Case Study

A Plan to Reform the US Healthcare System

The regimes need to be proactive in nature which means that the vision of having the related healthcare systems within the US medical departments and hospitals should be an ongoing activity rather a one-step, a reactionary move which usually happens from time to time, usually due to one calamity or a catastrophe that hits the particular region within the United States of America. Thus in this paper, our focus would be set on discussing the healthcare systems that are operational within the US and also pinpoint the gray areas where some particular steps could be taken to ward off the negativities thus attached to them. 

A healthy person is not difficult to define. He or she is a person who does his chores regularly...
10 Pages(2500 words)Term Paper

James Madison's 51st Federalist Paper

If this theory was seriously followed, it would suggest that the citizens must opt for the president, the legislators, as well as the judges. However, the framers identified certain realistic problems in making all the offices elective. Especially, the judicial branch would face problems because the typical person does not have knowledge about what qualifications judges ought to have. Judges must have great capability, but also not have any political pressures. While federal judges are selected for life, their philosophy will not be inclined via the president who appoints them or the senators whose permission the president will take.

All the arguments were generated due to his past life as he was in an aristocratic fami...
6 Pages(1500 words)Term Paper

The Trade Union Movement in the UK

Before the ERA 1999, union membership and recognition in the UK were characterized by voluntarism, in which employers and employees could bargain over the terms and conditions of employment without any legal interference. With the statutory system ushered in by the new law, voluntary recognition of unions is no longer allowed and it becomes unlawful for British employers to deny recognition to unions under any circumstances. That conveys the impression that ERA created a radical change in British industrial relations. This paper takes the contrary view, however, and proposes that while the new industrial relations law looks revolutionary in principle, there are no fundamental changes in actuality for the change to qualify as &ldqu...
8 Pages(2000 words)Case Study

Christian Identity Movement

verted to this religion believe that finally they have found their true identity by discovering that they are the descendants of the tribes of “white” Israel that were lost (Quarles 2004, p.7).
When any group of people say that they are superior to others on the basis of the race they belong to and also inculcate the belief that they are the only chosen people of God and not the people from other ethnic background, then one can very well say that that group or the organization is practicing racial beliefs. People who follow the Christian Identity believe that the people from Caucasian ethnic background are true Israelites and hence they are the only people from the God’s family (Quarles 2004, p.9). The teach...
6 Pages(1500 words)Coursework

The Wall Street Movement

Americans always believed that the core promise of opportunity would allow anyone committed to improving their station in life, would at least receive the chance to do so. It is a system that intertwines the representatives of our government with corporate interests, and in the process denies the ordinary man and women the opportunity to air their concerns. The economic crisis of 2008 perfectly illustrated this lopsided level of influence when the American government bailed out failed financial institutions to the tune of hundreds of billions of dollars but provided little or no aid for struggling homeowners, who were the ones to suffer most from the housing crisis. This failure to protect the interests of the American people touc...
7 Pages(1750 words)Term Paper

The Fasting Movement

... a pilgrimage to Mecca. However, hajj is only done by those with adequate financial resources. Animal sacrifice: Muslims are of the belief that it is God who gave humans the right to kill animals as well as consume them. Consequently, every Muslim is obliged to mention God at that time the animal is killed. It is also recommended that part of the meat from the animal is donated to the poor. Ritual prayer (salat): Before sleeping or after sleep prayers are recommended so as to nourish our bodies spiritually and also be near Allah. In addition, before departing to the Mosque a brief prayer is often performed in order to seek guidance from the Creator. During the times of prayer, the activity is often characterized by physical movements...
8 Pages(2000 words)Personal Statement
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Reform Movement paper for FREE!

Contact Us