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Specific Disease Site Of Clinical Oncology: Ovarian Cancer - Essay Example

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It can be ascertained that ovarian cancer is an extremely mortal gynecological cancers and affects almost 2.5% of the woman population. In accordance to the American Cancer Society it has been estimated that this form of cancer affects 24,000 women every year with a mortality scale up to 15,000…
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Specific Disease Site Of Clinical Oncology: Ovarian Cancer
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Download file to see previous pages At age 40 the risk becomes 0.25%, at age 45 the risk becomes 0.15%, at age 50 the risk remains at 0.15%, at age 55 the risk becomes 0.7%, at age 60 the risk becomes 0.6%, at age 65 the risk becomes 0.5%, at age 70 the risk becomes 0.4%, at age 75 the risk remains 0.4%, at age 80 the risk becomes 0.2% and at age 85 the risk becomes 1%. (Roberts, 265-267)
The etiology of the ovarian cancer can be broadly divided in two parts. The first part is called Sporadic ovarian cancer and the second part is mentioned as Hereditary ovarian cancer. Hereditary ovarian can further be divided into two parts. The first one is called BRCA 1 &2 and the second part is called HNPCC. The Sporadic ovarian cancer occupies the major number of infected patients. It is about 90% of all ovarian cancer. The Hereditary pat consists of the rest 10%. Out of this segment BRCA 1 &2 consist of 90% and the rest 10% is infected by HNPCC. (Cook, 178-179)
The ovaries can be enumerated as the reproductive organ of a woman. The two ovaries are located in the lesser area of the abdomen and is situated within the hipbones in the pelvis (Pic: Sideways view) region.
The location of the ovaries remains on either side of the uterus or womb. It can be mentioned that the ovaries are about the size of a olive with a shape of an elongated egg. The main function of the ovaries is the production of eggs and alongside it is responsible for production of other female hormones too. The major female hormones that are produced from the ovaries can be itemized as the progesterone and estrogen. The progesterone and estrogen hormones are extremely important hormones as they control the cycle of the menstrual phases. (Pic: frontal View)
Alongside they are instrumental in development and controlling physical appearance of a woman including hair growth, body shape and breast size. The progesterone and estrogen hormones are also very vital elements during pregnancy. (Cook, 324-25)
Diagnostic Exams Utilized in Diagnosis
Stages I and II in the case of ovarian cancer is very hard to diagnose and it is only very obvious during the third and fourth stages. In terms of differential diagnosis one effective blood test is CA 125 but is not very conclusive during the initial stages of the ailment. However, a test regarding fatty acid called lysophospholipids is regarded as an effective measure very recently. It is found that infected patients possess an upper level of lysophospholipids. Lysophospholipids is a potential biomarker and it has been found that it is about 93% accurate and it yields a false positive only about 4% in margin. The American Cancer Society has funded this test. Radiology and other symptoms are recently used to formulate combination tumor makers in relation to various pointer of malady to advance in the field of precision. However it should be noted that TVS or Transvaginal ultrasonography is also a very effective measure of detecting ovarian cancer. (Roy, 287-288, 4-2)
Pathology/Staging
FIGO or AJCC system of staging determines the staging of ovarian cancer. This information is formulated after surgery that may include cytology washing, abdominal hysterectomy, removal of ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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