Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Go to advanced search...

Mitochondrial DNA - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Mitochondrial Deoxyribonucleic acid, mtDNA, is found within the cell's mitochondria. Contradictory to most of the cell, the function of which is defined by nuclear DNA, mitochondria have their own DNA; and it is assumed to have evolved separately. This DNA is unique because it is inherited maternally, and only maternally, which allows researchers to trace lineage far back in time (Lyle 2004)…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER96.7% of users find it useful
Mitochondrial DNA
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Mitochondrial DNA"

Download file to see previous pages This is accomplished in humans by the sequencing one or more of the hypervariable control regions (HVR1 or HVR2) of the mitochondrial DNA (Schwartz & Vissing 2002).
Mitochondrial Eve is referred to as an ancestor who has been hypothesized on the grounds of fossil as well as DNA evidence (Vigilant et al. 1991). Phylogenies are constructed on mtDNA comparison shown that the living humans whose mitochondrial lineages branched earliest from the tree are indigenous Africans, while the lineages of indigenous peoples on other continents all branch off from African lines (Vigilant et al. 1991). Researchers can reason that all humans descend from Africa; and then they migrated out of Africa to populate the rest of the world. If the mitochondrial analysis is accurate, then mitochondrial Eve represents the origin of the mitochondrial family tree. Eve must have predated the mass departure and lived in Africa (Vigilant et al. 1991). Mitochondrial Eve was the most recent matrilineal ancestor of humans alive today. On the other hand, as evident lineages died out, the status of common matrilineal ancestor would have been passed to a descendant of the previous matrilineal ancestor. ...
The nucleotide sequence of the hypervariable 1 (HV-1) region of mtDNA was determined from samples of all four groups. There were 275 HV-1 sequences, and a total of 164 haplotypes were observed (Jackson et al.). Jackson reveals that through analysis of molecular inconsistency indicated that the distribution of these haplotypes within the Limba sample was considerably different from the other ethnic groups. He further states that there was no significant difference between the other groups (Jackson et al.). These distinguishing results show genetic differences that can be observed within different ethnic groups in considerably close proximity of each other. Moreover, Jackson, and his group, observed some mtDNA haplotypes that were similar among the Sierra Leone ethnic groups and that have not been published in any other West African studies (Jackson et al.). As a result, there may be evidence for mtDNA lineages that are unique to this region of Western Africa. The methods of sampling were cheek swabs, using the BuccalAmp DNA Extraction kit according to the manufacturer's specifications, which were taking from 166 unrelated individuals from all four ethnic groups: Mende, Temne, Loko, and Limba (Jackson et al.). These samples were obtained in pre-arranged meetings and males were primarily observed. This was because matrilineal and patrilineal studies were conducted (Jackson et al.). Matrilineal and patrilineal ethnic lineages over three generations were recorded for each individual.
The mtDNA haplotypes were determined by analyzing the nucleotide sequence of the hypervariable region (HV-I). HV1 sequences were allied and edited from positions 16001-16480 to ensure the identification of unambiguous polymorphisms (Jackson et al.). 480 bases of HV-I ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Mitochondrial DNA Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from
(Mitochondrial DNA Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 Words)
“Mitochondrial DNA Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 Words”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document


DNA Sequencing

... Biology   Topic:  Biotechnology Quiz 21/11 DNA Sequencing There are different methods which have been developed for DNA sequencing such as the Maxam-Gilbert method and Sanger method developed independently in 1977. In the Maxam-Gilbert method (Gilbert and Maxam 560-561), the technique determines DNA sequence by terminally labeling the four dNTPs with chemical agents and digesting the DNA with chemicals. A set of nested radioactive fragments are produced through this partial cleavage of DNA. Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE) is used to resolve the single-stranded fragments according to size which is determined by the point of breakage. An autograph representing the nucleotide base as occurring in the DNA fragments is then generated...
16 Pages(4000 words)Essay


Production of gametes through meiosis A basic tenet of embryology is the fusion of a male and a female gamete in the process called fertilization. The gametes are haploid cells that are produced in the testes and ovaries of the father and mother, respectively. They are produced in a cell division process called meiosis. This process is special because each of the resulting daughter cells contains just half of the chromosomes of the parent cell. In effect, a child receives 50% of each of the parent’s genetic material. Briefly, it involves two major processes, Meiosis I and then II, each composed of the usual processes of (1) prophase that prepares for (2) metaphase, in which the chromosomes meet in the middle, (3) anaphase, whereb...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

DNA a unique identifier because of its unique structure, yet mitochondrial DNA has one major difference associated with it that gives it a unique function as an identifier: it has much less variability than DNA and because it is inherited maternally and can be traced back to the mother, mitochondrial DNA can identify maternal relatives of the suspect being tested. Because of the unique properties of DNA, blood, and mitochondrial DNA, criminal lab technicians have the capability to identify criminals with the help of modern technology. Anyone who has viewed an episode of “CSI” or “Law and Order” has most...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay


... DNA: The Basis of Life The question of “What is life, and what is it made of” has been asked to the point of making it cliche,if not ubiquitous, yet a multitude of answers persist. Life could be defined as a potential, as a response to external stimuli, or even as an indefinable feeling, yet none of these answers attempts to solve the question of what actually drives the biological engine of our bodies that keeps us breathing, pumping blood, and absorbing food. On April 25th, 1953, the now famous scientific pair of Watson and Crick attempted to finally answer this question (Fredholm). They claimed that an elegant molecule called deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, was the “God Molecule”, the blueprint for every protein in our body...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

DNA Fingerprinting

...DNA Fingerprinting Introduction DNA as we all know is the basic building structure of every living thing present on earth. It has been scientifically proved that it is the DNA that gives us our characters, both phenotypic and genotypic. If the there is some sort of problem i.e. mutation in the DNA, it would lead to altered characters or even lead to abnormalities (Burke 1991). The DNA sequence of every individual is specific and is generally passed on from parents to their offspring. The basic structure of a DNA consists of four Nucleotide bases i.e. Adenine, Thymine, Guanine and Cytosine. These four bases pair with each other in a unique manner i.e. Adenine-Thymine and Guanine-Cytosine to form the unique DNA structure of every living...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Mitochondrial Disease, Parkinsons

... was more or less identical. Furthermore, support was lent to these findings on the basis of the fact that these findings were duplicated in the brains of animals exposed to MPTP, an environmental toxin associated with Parkinsons disease. [Schapira et al 1990] Another study tried to establish the relationship between mutations of the gene encoding mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma and the occurrence of Parkinsons disease. The study was conducted on the members of 7 families from different ethnic backgrounds. It showed that "Dysfunction of mitochondrial POLG causes a severe progressive multisystem disorder including parkinsonism and premature menopause, which are not typical of mitochondrial disease. Cosegregation of parkinsonism...
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper

Mitochondrial Death Channels by K.Webster

...Mitochondrial Death Channels by K.Webster “Mitochondrial Death Channels” by Webster, K.A., American Scientist, October 2009 Introduction Mitochondria are important organelles responsible for cellular respiration and generation of energy in all multicellular organisms. Often referred to as the powerhouse of the cell, the mitochondria produce energy from glucose and oxygen in the form of the high-energy compound, ATP. Thus, mitochondria function in an oxic environment. The presence of thrombosis that is, clogging of a coronary artery by a blood clot leads to ischemia or reduced blood supply to the cardiac tissue, and unhindered ischemia results in heart...
2 Pages(500 words)Article


...DNA and protein Database assignment Part 1) Nucleotide numbers constituting the coding sequence of: E1 alpha: NM_000284.3  3390 E1 beta: NM_000925.3  1544 (2) Number of exons and introns present in the genomic sequence of: E1 alpha: NM_000284.3  Exons = 11 Introns = 10 E1 beta: NM_000925.3  Exons = 10 Introns = 9 (3) E1 Beta sequence – BLAST results (Description of three sequences with highest homology): Name Pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) beta (PDHB) Pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) beta (PDHB) Pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) beta (PDHB) Accession number NM_001131433.1 NM_001246418.1 NM_001195394.1 Organism Pongo abelii (Sumatran orangutan) Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee) Macaca mulatta (Rhesus monkey) Description mRNA...
3 Pages(750 words)Coursework

Cell Fractionation and Mitochondrial Function

...Introduction The main aim of this laboratory report was to use differential centrifugation method in determination of cell fractionation and mitochondrial function. This is a technique in which the cell’s contents are spun first at a low speed to separate out larger particles such as the nucleus; what does not sediment at this speed is then placed in a clean tube and spun at a higher speed to separate out the next-larger particles – in this case, the mitochondria. The particles which have sediments, forms a pellet in the bottom of the tube (or on the lower side in the case of rotors which hold the tubes on an angle) and, particularly in the first spin, cell membrane material may appear as a floating skin or pellicle on the surface...
2 Pages(500 words)Lab Report

Mitochondrial Uncouplers

... Mitochondrial Uncouplers Using your knowledge of the processes of cellular respiration, describe the effect of 2,4-dinitrophenol on oxidative phosphorylation. (2.5 points) Cellular respiration involves formation of ATP from, addition of a phosphate molecule to ADP, oxidative phosphorylation. During the process of oxidative phosphorylation, there is a transfer of electrons from NADH to O2. The transfer of electrons results to the pumping out of protons which are responsible for the formation of ATP through creation of a proton-motive force(El-Zanfaly and Marwa 208). Unfortunately, 2,4-dinitrophenol increases basal leak of these protons (H+), and as a result affect the oxidative phosphorylation process. 2. Why does disruption of oxidative...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

DNA Methylation Effects in Friedreich Ataxia (FRDA)

...DNA Methylation Effects in Friedreich Ataxia (FRDA) LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction It has been more than 140 years since Nickolaus Friedreich described the “degenerative atrophy of the posterior columns of the spinal cord” (cited by Andermann, 1976). This pathology became the subject of intensive scientific discussion immediately after the first reports, but only during the last few decades determined the association of Friedreich ataxia severity with expansion of GAA triplet in the first intron of the gene coding specific mitochondrial protein. The clinical signs of Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) include the slow progression of gait ataxia of cerebellar and sensory genesis, disarthria and other conditions like the absence of tendon...
20 Pages(5000 words)Book Report/Review

Drugs that Bind DNA to Treat Diseases

...Topic: Drugs that bind DNA to treat diseases (selected disease: cancer) Part A- (word count excluding the three citations = 459 The following keywords and keyword combination were used to search for articles on drugs that bind DNA to treat diseases: “Drug-DNA interactions AND cancer;” “DNA binding AND anti-cancer drugs” 2. To find articles on the given topic, PubMed Central was selected as the database for the search. Pubmed Central (PMC) is a digital archive or electronic storage of biomedical and life science journals of the U.S. National Library of Medicine at the National Institutes of Health. It is a feature of the homepage of the National Center for Biotechnology Information ( Pubmed Central has...
6 Pages(1500 words)Case Study

The Pros and Cons of DNA Testing in Law Enforcement

...DNA Testing Allen D. Green Anna Hopson English 122 October 5, 2009 The world around us is changing rapidly due to new technologies. Especially in the field of criminal justice we can see how new techniques that once could only have been dreamt up by science fiction writers are now a reality. The techniques, especially DNA testing, are now an integral part of efforts to prevent and solve crimes—largely because of their success rate and their level of convenience. This is very important because our police forces and forensic laboratories play a vital front line role in investigating and protecting us from criminals. In many respects, law enforcement professionals can only protect the public in so far as they can properly and effectively make...
8 Pages(2000 words)Term Paper

Opportunities and Limitations of DNA Screening Technologies

... Limitations of DNA Screening Technologies Introduction Genetic testing for the purpose of identifying disease genes has become one of the most widely used tools in molecular medicine. The search for the genetic origins of inherited disease syndromes has led to the identification of several thousand genes responsible for many single gene disorders (Cotton, 1993). The molecular technologies that have facilitated this search have also led to the assessment of specific mutations and their effects on protein structure and function that have been critical to the development of an understanding of physiological mechanisms of pathogenesis (Balogh, 2004). The plethora of genetic testing methodologies, however, has not led to the expected...
7 Pages(1750 words)Essay

The Effects of Hair Dye on DNA

... An increase in the risk of cancer for hair dye users has been a widespread concern for researchers, battling the issue of whether chemical hair dye effects a person’s DNA. Researchers throughout the world have studied this issue, but the results have been inconclusive. The chemical ingredients contained in the hair dye are mutagenic in vitro, which are carcinogenic in animals and humans. This report focuses on the effects of Hair Dye on DNA. The information for this report is sourced from the following reports: “Hair Dye Linked to Blood Cancer,” “Personal Use of Hair Dyes and Risk of Cancer,” “Possible risk factors for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma,” and “Does Hair Dye Cause Cancer?” Each report focuses on studying the effects of Hair Dye...
6 Pages(1500 words)Literature review

DNA Profiling, Forensics, Predicting the Physical Characteristics and the Related Ethical and Personal Issues

... was the introduction of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which allowed the analysis and development of DNA profiles retrieved from minute quantities of biological content. The Autosomal short tandem repeats (STR) became the key driver in DNA profiling and is continuing its role even now. Another major advancement in DNA profiling is the use of mitochondrial DNA to retrieve needed information from old specimens of bones and teeth. From those beginnings, DNA profiling systems has seen significant advances, with identification taken to optimum levels in the form of predicting or identifying the physical characteristics of individuals specifically suspects based on DNA materials, thereby even creating a visual image. This concept of developing...
9 Pages(2250 words)Research Paper

Human genetic disorders can arise as a consequence of mutations in either nuclear or mitochondrial genomes. Using specific examples describe the distinct patterns of inheritance for mitochondrial and various nuclear mutations (autosomal, X-linked etc), an

... of two types i.e. X & Y chromosomes where X is for female and Y for Male. The chromosomes are mainly classified either on the basis of their banding or on the basis of the position of the centromere i.e. the central point of every chromosome. The basic constitutive component of these DNA molecules, euchromatin and heterochromatin is the main factor on which the DNA on all these chromosomes differ from each other. Still, on some of the chromosomes e.g. 1, 9 and 16 show heterochromatin in their centromere region where as Chromosome Y is also considered to contain more heterochromatin. (T. STRACHAN and A. READ, 2004,p19) Mitochondrial genes There usually are two strands in mitochondrial genome i.e. H and L strand. The H strand is supposed...
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay

The Backlog of DNA Samples and Its Effects on the Criminal Justice System

... Criminal Justice The Backlog of DNA Samples and Its Effects on the Criminal Justice System Abstract This research study is to look at the situation of DNA case backlogs which are occurring at an alarming rate. Part of this has to do with the reduction in government allotment of funds to the required departments that subsist on them to function and to perform the analysis on crime evidence. This analysis is essential for prosecuting cases of rape and murder and therefore, must be conducted quickly to ensure justice for the victim and conviction of the guilty. When DNA samples are not analyzed in a timely fashion, then murderers and rapists are allowed to go free and take another life or rape another person. It is essential to get...
12 Pages(3000 words)Research Paper

Arrestees DNA Sample and the Fourth Amendment

... Arrestee’s DNA Sample and the Fourth Amendment One of the most controversial cases which the Supreme Court is about to decide is the case involving the Maryland DNA Collection Act (MDCA) which authorizes law enforcers to gather DNA samples from persons arrested for various crimes involving violence (US Supreme Court Media, n.d., p.1). In this case, DNA was gathered from Alonzo Jay King, Jr. who was arrested for assault charges and later on, the said DNA was logged onto the DNA database of Maryland discovering thereby that the DNA sample of King matched that of a rape case that has been unresolved (US Supreme Court Media, n.d., p.1). Such sample was the lone evidence used to convict King of first-degree rape by the trial judge who...
10 Pages(2500 words)Case Study

Criminal Justice Technology: DNA Testing

... Criminal Justice Technology: DNA Testing Section I: Introduction Emergent technology has impacted on every aspect of the modern human life, criminal justice being no exception. The police administration, counter terrorism and the courts, among other bodies in the criminal justice system, have made use of robots, advanced cameras and information technology to uncover and inculpate criminal offenders to a greater magnitude and accuracy than traditional systems accorded. Leveraged on improved surveillance, investigation and analysis procedures, such new technologies include biometric technologies, data mining, DNA typing, location tracking body armour, video surveillance networks, force computer simulators and inter-agency radios (Cole...
8 Pages(2000 words)Research Paper
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Mitochondrial DNA for FREE!

Contact Us