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Selfish Gene - Book Report/Review Example

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Richard Dawkins, aBritishethologist,evolutionary biologistand an accepted sciencewriter was also a professor atNew College, Oxford. In 1982, his prominence was further accepted due to his contribution to the field with the theory described in his book The Extended Phenotype, that thephenotypicimpact of a gene isn't restricted to just the body of the organism, but was capable of spreading out into the environment, influencing other organisms as well…
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Download file to see previous pages Dawkins has established the foundation theory which was presented inthe volumeAdaptation and Natural Selection authored by George C. Williams's. He presented the termselfish geneas a means of articulating thegene-centric theory of evolution, which give out the idea that evolution, was best observed as acting ongenesand that selection at the organism level almost never dominates selection based on genes. Dawkins was of the opinion that organism tries to evolve to capitalize on itsinclusive fitness i.e., the numerous replicas of its genes passed on globally rather than by a certain individual. This led to populations being headed towards anevolutionarily stable approach. Dawkins introduced the termmemeas an element of humancultural evolutionparallel to that of the gene, proposing that such "selfish" copying may also represent human culture, in a distinct manner.Memeticsemerged as the theme of numerous researches after the publication of this concept. By calling genes as being "selfish", Dawkins should not be misinterpreted that his intent was to imply that genes are determined by any motive or will and should be understood that only their impacts suggest as if they are really "selfish". (Dawkins, 176) The argument was that the genes which are passed on are the ones whose outcomes serve their own inherent interests to carry on being duplicated and not essentially those of the organism which contains it. This outlook makes clear the phenomenon of altruism at the individual level in life, particularly in kin relations when an individual forgoes its own life to shield the lives of kin, and by doing so it acts in the favor of its own genes. (King, 287-9)
Several critics have developed understanding to interlink science and art. The science has been regarded as the inspiration for poetry and art, but the poetic fellows believe that art is in human soul and body, it prospers not because of the human wonder in science and technology; rather it drives the human soul and intellect towards achievement of excellence which has translated into scientific wonders. The science and art has been regarded as two distinct cultures, however the notion of diversity and pluralism shall bring convergence among two subjects. It is known that the cultural divisions exists, however this division has translated into "greater demands on science". Art and science are integrated, though these have distinct outlook, but common approach of exploration, experimentation and human satisfaction. The famous novelist C.P. Snow has declared science and arts as two distinct cultures, the advent of scientific gadgets have bridged the two distinct poles, "nonscientists want new and improved technology, but they don't want to learn what makes it possible, only that it does work, is instantaneous, and won't harm them". The art and science existed since the commencement of the evolutionary cycle; however the linkage between these two distinct perspectives or traits was possible after the role of intellect reigned supreme. The human intellect and notion of pluralism has adjudicated that science and art has homogenized. The art is human passion, science is human adventure; if art is human spirit, and the science is thirst. The bond between these two perspectives ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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