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Describe the contribution of the Neo Human Relations School of Management to the Development of Organisational Theory - Essay Example

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In new age, organisations regard personality as being of key significance in their decision making. Neo human relations school explains that for organisations, personality is the major criteria for selection or rejection. Management, an integral part of this relationship, should take into account psychological and social needs of employees in order to manage them…
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Describe the contribution of the Neo Human Relations School of Management to the Development of Organisational Theory
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Describe the contribution of the Neo Human Relations School of Management to the Development of Organisational Theory In new age, organisations regard personality as being of key significance in their decision making. Neo human relations school explains that for organisations, personality is the major criteria for selection or rejection. Management, an integral part of this relationship, should take into account psychological and social needs of employees in order to manage them. The great contribution of the neo human relations school is that they has changed the view of organization as a static entity and proposed to give proper attention to the personnel function.
Herzberg, Maslow and McGregor developed distinct theories which help to describe organizations in connection with personality, motivation, commitment and social influences.
They explain that attention should be focused, therefore, on improving the people-organisation relationship. Management is essentially an integrating activity which permeates every facet of the operations of the organisation. The effectiveness of any work organisation is dependent upon the efficient use of resources, in particular human resources.
According to Douglas McGregor, the style of management adopted is a function of the manager's attitudes towards people, and assumptions about human nature and behaviour. He put forward two sets of suppositions - Theory X and Theory Y. The central principle of Theory X is based on direction and control through a centralised system of organisation and the exercise of authority. In contrast, the central principle of Theory Y is based on the integration of individual and organisational goals. These underlying philosophies will influence a whole range of managerial behaviours and strategies. One of the most important factors in the successful implementation of organisational change is the style of managerial behaviour. In certain situations, and with certain members of staff, it may be necessary for management to make use of hierarchical authority and to attempt to impose change through a coercive, autocratic style of behaviour. According to Theory X and Theory Y, some members may actually prefer, and respond better, to a directed and controlled style of management.
Frederick Herzberg's theory is also known as the "Hygiene theory". The main question Herzberg try to answer "What do people want from their jobs". This theory of motivation is related to job satisfaction. In particular, Herzberg's two-factor theory is essentially a theory of job satisfaction. His belief is that job enrichment should give people the opportunity to use their talents and abilities, and to exercise more self-control over the job. Inherent in the job should be a learning and growth experience. Building on from the two-factor theory, Herzberg has identified a number of factors as part of an approach to job design and job enrichment. He singles out intrinsic and extrinsic factors created to job dissatisfaction.
The great contribution of Abraham H. Maslow is the "Theory of Needs" which explains motivation of employees and helps managers to force than to work effectively. Maslow singles out five basic levels of needs: psychological (hunger, thirst), safety (protection), social (be accepted, belong to a certain group), esteem (self-confidence, achievements, respect, status, recognition), and self-actualization (realizing one's potential for continued self-development). This theory shows that needs follow in sequence and when one need is satisfied it decreases in strength and the higher need then dominates behavior. This leads to the statement that a satisfied need is not a motivator. There is a doubt whether this really applies in practice to the higher needs as it is likely that self-esteem requires continues stimulation and renewal.
Taking into account Neo human relations school of management, it is possible to say that it added "human element" to organisational theory. For manager and organization it is crucial to understanding factors and forces that motivate employees and force than to work effectively. Effective motivation process is at the heart of organization development and improved performance. Improved results will not be achieved unless workers can also feel a sense of excitement about their work which results in the motivation to perform well. Proper attention to the personnel function will help improve the efficiency of the labour force and the level of organisational performanceManagement should, therefore, endeavour to create the right balance between the interrelated elements which make up the total organisation, these into coherent patterns of activity best suited to the external environment in which the organisation is operating.
References
1. Howard, L. C., McKinney, J.B. Public Administration: Balancing Power and Accountability. Praeger Publishers, 1998. Read More
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