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Dutch Revolt - Essay Example

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Nowadays most of people seem to think that Europe has always been a natural cultural and political area, but it was constructed through the intersection of capitalism expanding from the cities, coercion and regulation exercised by centralizing states, and contention fought out among states and between them and their people.
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Dutch Revolt
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Download file to see previous pages In Middle Ages there were tree independent dukedoms: Gelderland and Brabant, counties of Holland, Zeeland and Flanders, and episcopacy of Utrecht. In 1370 in order to protect own interests the cities of Holland, Zeeland and Utrecht as well as the episcopacy of Utrecht established trading-political Hanseatic League. It carried out in practice the intermediation between West, North and East Europe and had a trading hegemony in Northern Europe. In the XV century there was a beginning of state main political institutions formation. The protoplast of future parliament - The States-General - was framed in 1463.
Since 1482 the territory of Nederland was a part of Habsburg's realm, and since 1556 a part of Spanish Habsburg's realm. During the times of Charles V regiment (1500 - 1558), there was completed the process of integration with contemporary Belgium and Luxemburg and later on formed the one and undivided state of Hole Roman Empire. In this period of time the term "Dutch Republic" came into existence.
In economically developed regions there were circulated monetary rent and different kinds of short-term lease; there were formed the order of farmers who do for on the entrepreneurial basis. There was forming the bourgeoisie and was germinating proletariat. The "proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. Originally it was identified as those people who had no wealth other than their sons; the term was initially used in a derogatory sense, until Karl Marx used it as a sociological term to refer to the working class"2.
Notwithstanding Spanish authorities were constantly trying to suspend the development of Netherlands. There was inquisition put into action, all people that were in bed odor with it were put to torture. In this time of spiritual oppression and political coercion in Netherlands the new religion doctrine of Calvinism, that is a "system of Christian theology and an approach to Christian life and thought within the Protestant tradition articulated by John Calvin, a Protestant Reformer in the 16th century, and subsequently by successors, associates, followers and admirers of Calvin, his interpretation of Scripture, and perspective on Christian life and theology"3. Calvinism got its broad spread and opposed itself to theological system of Catholicism.
Impassioned and filled inside with religious protest the population of Netherlands excited iconoclast movement destroying icons, statues of Saints and other matters of religion cult. . Relegated Spanish vindicatory army started the severest terror. Finally it flamed up the nationwide war, which got the name of Eighty Years War or Dutch Revolt (1566 -1648).
The laboratory movement was headed by William of Orange. It should be mentioned that the struggle against Spanish enslavers pushed forward the increase of national self-consciousness. Exactly this period of time is connected with becoming of Dutch nation and language. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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