Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Go to advanced search...

Pharmacology Population - Assignment Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
The author of the assignment concludes that population pk plays very significant and contributing role in pharmacology. This is because it is through population pk that populations of patients are differentiated based on their unique characteristics…
Download full paper File format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER98.9% of users find it useful
Pharmacology Population
Read Text Preview

Extract of sample "Pharmacology Population"

Download file to see previous pages In a study by Bartelink, Rademaker, Schobben, et al. (2006), population pk was found to be a very important approach through which not just pharmacokinetic information is obtained from sparse data sets but also pharmacodynamic information obtained from this same sparse data set. Leeder (2004) also observed that there stages in the drug development process where the very large population may be needed but with only a few observations per patient so as to determine the exact and unique differences with drug behavior in each patient based on special characteristics. To achieve this, population pk is employed or used to obtain information at both the phase II and phase III clinical trials among patients. It is not surprising that Ernest, Elder, Martini, et al. (2007) identified population pk as a practice associated with several pharmaceutical companies in the course of their drug development process. Certainly, population pk comes as a single most reliable mechanism by which dosage determination to drugs can be done due to the size of the population used in the sparse data sets, each of whom is observed for very specific outcomes based on their demographic and pathophysiology characteristics.
Also writing on the contribution of population pk to drug development, Roosmarijn et al. (2011) found that there are instances when intensive blood sampling can be attained. Meanwhile, Hsieh and Korfmacher (2006) noted that where intensive blood sampling is possible, there is the benefit of replicating the outcomes with particular blood samples for a larger population size. This means that where intensive blood sampling is not possible an alternative is needed to ensure that almost all populations are catered for. Typical situations in drug development where intensive blood sampling has not been attainable include drug development processes for children, cancer, and AIDS. ...Download file to see next pages Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Pharmacology Population Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words”, n.d.)
Pharmacology Population Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words. Retrieved from
(Pharmacology Population Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words)
Pharmacology Population Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words.
“Pharmacology Population Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Pharmacology Population


The study tells that use of natural products with therapeutic value is as old as human civilization. Harvey explains that prior to industrial revolution; minerals, animal and plant products were the main source of drugs. Many communities in different parts of the world have historically relied on natural products as the source of products. Tulp and Bohlin asserts that natural products have recorded the highest efficacy as a source of drugs. They further observe that plants were historically the most important natural source of drugs. However, Jensen et al. observes that Industrial Revolution and subsequent development of organic chemistry lead to the liking of synthetic products for manufacture of drugs. Tulp and Bohlin note that...
13 Pages (3250 words) Essay


...? DEFINITION ESSAY: PHARMACOLOGY SUBMITTED BY: SUBMITTED INSTITUTE: Pharmacology is one of the multiple fields of study that fall under the broad umbrella of medicine. Other terms, closely related to pharmacology include pharmacy, pharmacist and pharmaceutical. The focus of this essay will be on the term ‘pharmacology’. Pharmacology refers basically to the branch of science, which deals with the study of medicines, focusing on the origin, chemical composition and therapeutic impact (The American heritage, 2004). More specifically, Pharmacology is the study of interaction between drugs and living beings (Hollinger, 2003). The word pharmacology has a Greek origin. According to Bukert (1985), in Greek religion, ‘Pharmakos’ referred to a human...
2 Pages (500 words) Essay


...?Pharmacology Question 1. Glyceryl trinitrate is a vasodilator that has an effect on both veins and arteries. Nitro lingual Pump spray is a dose spray that is metered and contains Glyceryl trinitrate. Each metered dose has a delivery of 400µg for every spray emission and the product conveys Glyceryl trinitrate as spray droplets below the tongue. No inhalation of the spray should take place. An initial one-metered dose ought to be sprayed below the tongue at an attack’s onset, followed by another metered dose within a period of five minutes should pain relief not occur. It is recommended that it should not exceed two metered doses. To prevent exercise-induced angina and other precipitation-related conditions, at least one metered dose...
6 Pages (1500 words) Essay

Pharmacology in nursing-Psychiatric disorder

... developed nations, with U.S. being the leading nation. Lifetime prevalence differs greatly from 3% in Japan to as high as 17% in the U.S. Populations in most nations experience depression at a rate ranging between 8% and 12% (Lehne, 2012). The treatment of psychosis and depression has for a very long time relied on antipsychotics as the first line of treatment. In addition to the pharmacological approach, family and cognitive behavioral therapies have also been recommended for long-term treatment. The use of antipsychotics has in the past presented mixed reactions among users and still continues to present a dilemma in the treatment of psychosis and depression. Notably, the challenge appeared in 2004 and 2005 when the Federal Drug...
4 Pages (1000 words) Assignment


In the liver, lignocaine biotransformation involves oxidative N-dealkylation, cleavage of the amide linkage, ring hydroxylation and conjugation (Bennett, 1992). The oxidative N-dealkylation process is the major pathway in biotransformation of the drug in the liver. The oxidative N-dealkylation pathway produces glycinexylidide and monoethylglycinexylidide metabolites that have less potent pharmacologic effects than lignocaine (Kwan, 2001). In addition, these metabolites are less toxic than the primary drug. Section 2. Drug formulation and administration routes List all the formulations and doses available in Australia In Australia, Lignocaine is available as a lignocaine injection, Xylocaine, Xylocaine with adrenaline, Xylocard, X...
9 Pages (2250 words) Essay


...? Pharmacology Activity Foreachof the body systemslisteddescribe the consequence of activation of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems, then describe a clinical symptom or condition that as a paramedic you may observe in someone with a highly activatedPARASYMPATHETIC nervous system. (6 marks) Body System Parasympathetic Activation Sympathetic Activation Clinical Symptom / Condition e.g.Heart - Rate Decreased heart rate Increased heart rate Bradycardia Heart – Force of Contraction Decreases cardiac contraction Increases the force of contraction Cardio vascular disorders like distorted cardiac rhythm Pupil Constricts the iris muscles to allow little light to pass to the pupil (Shiota and Kalat, 2012, p. 87) Relaxes the muscles...
4 Pages (1000 words) Essay


Here, they are absorbed into the blood through the epithelial cells and into the blood stream. From the bloodstream, they may enter the tissue fluid and then into the cell where they are metabolized and converted into active form. During this process, the drugs encounter several obstacles in their path that they have to overcome. They occur at almost every stage of the process from administering to action at the target sites. The main barriers are the cell plasma membrane, epithelial cells, endothelial cells, blood capillaries, glomerular membrane, capillaries and renal tubules among others. The plasma membrane is a lipid barrier. It only allows passage of lipophilic molecules and hydrophilic molecules, like water, into the cell....
3 Pages (750 words) Assignment


...? Pharmacology Administration of medication in hospitals requires a lot more than giving patients their medication. According to the AFH rules, caregivers must always be aware of every patient’s medication administration schedule, why the patient is being given the medication, its effects and any side effects that could arise. Medication administration process includes getting medical orders, writing medical orders on the (MAR) medical administration record, comparing the medical orders with the ones on the MAR to ensure they are correct, delivering and administering the medication to the patients, monitoring the patient’s progress and recording, storing and getting rid of expired, unused and contaminated medication. Potential issues...
4 Pages (1000 words) Assignment


...? Pharmacology Pharmacology Discuss how the drug safety for the different phases of pregnancy is determined. Distinguish between the categories established by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to classify potential drug risks to the fetus (A,B,C,D,X). What does each category mean in terms of potential fetal risks? In your response please discuss why medications are categorized as they are, and the evidence upon which the classifications are made for each drug. Answer Pregnancy is an exceptional physiological condition where drug medicine presents a unique concern on the grounds that the physiology of pregnancy influences the pharmacokinetics of meds utilized and certain prescriptions can achieve the baby reason to hurt. Add...
4 Pages (1000 words) Assignment

Receptor pharmacology in 21st century therapeutics

...? RECEPTOR PHARMACOLOGY IN 21ST CENTURY THERAPEUTICS due: Introduction From the beginning ofthe 20th century, there have been enormous leaps of development in the pharmaceutical industry and the science of pharmacology. Relentless research has led to the discovery of new synthetic drugs like barbiturates and syphilis curing arsenical compounds by scientists like Paul Ehrlich (Rang & Dale, 2012: 18). Further breakthroughs include the discovery of sulfonamides, which are the first antibacterial drugs and they were discovered by Gerhard Domagk, the development of penicillin by Florey and Chain based on Fleming’s work. Most of the hormones, inflammatory mediators and neurotransmitters known to man were discovered in the 20th and 21st centuries...
8 Pages (2000 words) Essay


...Pharmacology The use of pro-drugs in improving bioavailability and pharmacokinetic profiles. Introduction: Drugs are an important component in the treatment of diseases and conditions and this has led to the search for more effective drugs and the means to enhance the efficacy of the drug, while reducing the impact of side effects. A drug that is developed may have the essential structural configuration and physicochemical properties for providing a desired therapeutic effect, but it is not necessary that it possess the optimal molecular framework and properties to ensure delivery at the targeted site of action. In such cases only a small fraction of the drug reaches the targeted site, while the remaining fraction of the drug interacts...
12 Pages (3000 words) Essay


...Case Study, Health sciences and medicine; pharmacology Executive Summary There is a lot of interest in the way imatinib, the most effective treatment therapy for for chronic myeloid leukemia works. The first interest goes on how the drug interrupts the activity of the BCR-Abl receptor tyrosine kinase fusion protein. Studies show that it does so by acting against tyrosine kinase enzyme that necessitated the signaling cascade necessary the development of cancer (Cools et al. 2003). It is also significant to know why imatinib is effective with no many side effects. Many empirical studies have given the explanation of this effectiveness (Cools et al. 2003; Killock 2014; Mitzuta et al. 2013; Stegmeier et al. 2010). The reason as to why imatinib...
5 Pages (1250 words) Case Study

Metabolism of Paracetamol and Terfenadine Drugs

The impact of these adverse reactions is that there are estimates from some studies that 6.7% of hospitalized patients in the developed nation like the United States of America have a serious drug reaction with a fatality rate of 0.32%, and there are estimates that put the cost to the nation of the morbidity and mortality related to adverse drug reactions at $136 billion. (1). An essential factor in the toxicity of a drug is the manner in which it is metabolized and excreted from the body. Understanding drug toxicity requires an understanding of the metabolism of drugs in the human body, and the role that it plays in the toxicity of drugs.

Metabolism of drugs occurs after absorption of the drug and hence the route of ad...
8 Pages (2000 words) Case Study
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Assignment on topic Pharmacology Population for FREE!

Contact Us