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Biology of Aids and Stds - Assignment Example

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This work called "Biology of Aids and Stds" describes a major pandemic HIV-1, ways of transmission. The author takes into account the problem of HIV transmission, the way of solving it, various risks, the role of culture, the quality of life. …
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Biology of Aids and Stds
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Download file to see previous pages The estimated transmission rates during the different stages of pre-, during, and post-delivery: The results of several studies taken together support the notion that the risk for mother to child HIV-1 transmission increases rapidly as the pregnancy reaches its later stages. This inference is supported by evidence demonstrating the absence of HIV-1 infection in early and second-trimester fetuses of HIV-1 infected mothers.
Data from two African trials in breastfeeding populations lend further support to these estimates. Transmission rates of 6.5% and 5.3% respectively, were achieved when single-dose mother-infant nevirapine was added to zidovudine, started at 36 or 34 weeks of gestation, and continued for a week to a month in the infant, respectively. This cut the transmission rate by about half: to 11.9%. The results of studies are consistent with the hypothesis that a very high proportion of HIV-1 transmissions occur between 36 weeks and delivery. Transmission rates for women receiving high active antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy are less than 2%. The postnatal transmission rate is estimated to be as high as 15% if women engage in prolonged breastfeeding for about 2 years. Transmission risk is higher during early lactation because of viral load in colostrum. Using the estimates from studies, if breastfeeding for only 6 months became a widely adopted policy, the transmission risk during breastfeeding would drop from 16% to 11%, and if breastfeeding was used exclusively for 6 months, this risk might be further reduced to about half: 6%. Breastfeeding would then account for 18% of all transmissions.
An important area for future research recommended by the review: Addressing the challenge of breastfeeding transmission should be a top research priority, in order to prevent millions of new pediatric HIV-1 infections worldwide.
Question No.2. a) The major concern regarding breastfeeding in HIV-1 infected women is that postnatal transmission via breastfeeding is high, especially in settings where safe feeding alternatives are not available. The postnatal transmission rate is estimated to be as high as 15% if women engage in prolonged breastfeeding of about 2 years. Risk is higher during early lactation because of increased breast milk viral load in colostrum. The risk which continues throughout breastfeeding is associated with low maternal CD4 count, duration of feeding, maternal virus load, mastitis, and mixed feeding. It is derived that approximately 40% of all infected children become infected during breastfeeding. ...Download file to see next pages Read More
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