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Cigarettes and Lungs Cancer - Research Paper Example

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The writer of the following research paper "Cigarettes and Lungs Cancer" seeks to concern the relations between smoking and lung cancer development. Smoking, both active and passive, undoubtedly, is one of the important causative factors of lung cancer…
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Cigarettes and Lungs Cancer
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Download file to see previous pages Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality all over the world. There are basically 2 predominant types of lung cancer and they are small cell lung cancer or SCLC and non-small cell lung cancer or NSCLC. The latter constitutes 85% of all lung cancer cases. NSCLC is further divided into large cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma (Molina et al, 2008). All these types of lung cancers are different in terms of clinical presentation and histopathological characteristics. But management plans and prognoses are similar. The most frequently encountered NSCLC is adenocarcinoma arising from the mucosal glands of the bronchi. It represents 35-40 percent of all lung cancers. It is mostly seen in the peripheral portion of the lung. It is the most common histologic subtype. It can also manifest as scar cancer. This subtype is mostly seen in non-smokers and may present as a bronchoalveolar form of multifocal tumors. Squamous cell carcinoma accounts for about 25 percent of lung cancers. Unlike adenocarcinoma, the cancers are mainly seen in the central parts of the lungs with the classical clinical presentation being proximal bronchus cavity. It is characterized by keratin pearls and has the tendency to exfoliate. It is often associated with hyperkalemia. 10-15 percent of lung cancers are caused due to large cell carcinoma that is easily diagnosable by chest X-ray. Lung cancer metastasis to liver, bones, adrenal glands, brain, spinal cord, and pericardium....
Unlike adenocarcinoma, the cancers are mainly seen in the central parts of the lungs with classical clinical presentation being proximal bronchus cavity. It is characterized by keratin pearls and has the tendency to exfoliate. It is often associated with hypercalemia. 10-15 percent of lung cancers are caused due to large cell carcinoma that is easily diagnosable by chest X-ray. Lung cancer metastatises to liver, bones, adrenal glands, brain, spinal cord and pericardium (Molina et al, 2008). Regional incidence pertaining to lung cancer is actually variable and it predominantly depends on the prevalence of cigarette smoking. For instance, in Utah, the incidence of lung cancer is lowest and smoking is lowest there (Molina et al, 2008). On the other hand, in Kentucky, the incidence of smoking is highest and so is the case with lung cancer (Molina et al, 2008). Another interesting aspect is, with the decline in the prevalence of smoking, the incidence of lung cancer is predominant in former smokers than in current smokers. For example, according to a study by Yang et al (2005), "more than 5000 patients whose lung cancer was diagnosed between 1997 and 2002, only 25% were current smokers and more than 60% were former smokers" (cited in Molina et al, 2008). The epidemic of lung cancer in the 20th century is undoubtedly caused by cigarette smoking. The development of lung cancer secondary to smoking is directly related to the number of cigarettes smoked per day and the duration of smoking. The nicotine content and tar content also influence the development of lung cancer. Tobacco contains about 300 substances that are harmful of which more than 60 are potent carcinogens (Lee, 2001). Nitrosamine-NNK and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons for DNA ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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