Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Go to advanced search...

What are variables - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
A variable is anything whose value can vary. For instance age is a variable as age varies for different persons. Variables need not be numerical always. Gender is a variable as it consists of two text values ‘male’ and ‘female’. …
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER93.9% of users find it useful
What are variables
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "What are variables"

Download file to see previous pages A variable is anything whose value can vary. For instance age is a variable as age varies for different persons. Variables need not be numerical always. Gender is a variable as it consists of two text values ‘male’ and ‘female’. An attribute refers to specific values of the variable. For example, the variable gender has two attributes- male and female. The variable agreement may have five attributes- (a) strongly agree, (b) disagree (c) neutral (d) agree and (e) strongly agree (Trochim, 2006).Every variable has some attributes.For studying cause- effect relationship, the distinction between independent variable and dependent variable must be clear. The independent variable is what the researcher manipulates. The dependent variable is that which is affected by the independent variable. The independent variable is the cause or treatment and the dependent variable is the effect or outcome. For example, while studying the effects of traffic rule awareness campaigns to reduce accidents, the program is the independent variable and the achievements are dependent variables. A variable should be exhaustive and mutually exclusive. Exhaustive means that a variable should include all possible responses. For this purpose, list all the important attributes and use a general category like “other” to represent remaining ones. Also, variables should be mutually exclusive. It means that no one should be able to have two attributes simultaneously. Operationalization The meaning of a research study depends on how objectively the phenomena under consideration are observed. So developing a reliable and valid set of procedures for measuring the variables is crucial for the validity of research study (Operational Definitions, 2005). The first step for an operational definition is to specify the constructs. How observations are made, what is observed, how observations are to be recorded have to be specified accurately. Sample Sampling is the process of selecting units from a population so that by studying the sample, it would be able to generalise results back to the population. Related to generalisation is the concept of external validity. Validity refers to the approximate truth of conclusions (Trochim, 2006). External validity refers to the degree to which conclusions in the study would hold for other persons in other places at other times (Trochim, 2006). There are two major methods for selecting sample for generalisation. One is called sampling model. In it, the population to be generalised is identified and a fair sample is drawn to conduct the research. Since the sample is representative of the population, the generalisations are applicable to the population. The second approach is called proximal similarity model. The term proximal similarity was suggested by Donald T. Campbell. In this approach, several generizability contexts are considered and theories are developed as to which situation or context is more similar to the study and which are less similar. By doing so, it is possible to generalise the results of the study to other persons, places or times that are more like the study (Trochim, 2006). The population to be generalised is called theoretical population. The population that is accessible to the study is called accessible population. The list of accessible population from which sample is drawn is known as sampling frame. For example, if a phone survey is to be done with a phone book, the phone book is the sampling frame. The sample is the group of people, who are selected for the study. But, the group that actually completes the study is the sub sample of the sample only. There is a distinction between random selection and random assignment. Random selection refers to how sample is selected. Random assignment refers to how different treatments are assigned to the sample selected for study. In sampling, the units are usually people and they supply responses. A response is a specific measurement value. A statistic is used to look at the responses of the entire sample. Mean, median, ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“What are variables Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from
(What Are Variables Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 Words)
“What Are Variables Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 Words”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF What are variables

Changeable Variables

... Changeable Variables A variable is anything changeable, such as value or character. Variables are usually used in experiments of psychology to see if they will be changes to something because of changes in another. Psychology is a wide field and has many different ways of testing ideas as well as learning more regarding thoughts and behavior. However, experiments in psychology of which are different from surveys and studies as well as other methods of measuring psychology, have a particular definition and take into account many issues. One of the issues that every experiment in psychology must take into account is variables, of which are dependent, independent as well as confounding. Furthermore, ignoring any of these three variables...
2 Pages(500 words)Assignment

Independent, Mediating, Moderating and Dependent Variables

...Contributing to Theory: Independent, Mediating, Moderating and Dependent Variables Contributing to Theory: Independent, Mediating, Moderating and Dependent Variables A mediating variable (mediator or intervening variable) is an intermediate construct that describes how effects or output will occur by justifying the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. It also accounts for the relationship between the criterion and the predictor. Mediator constructs explicate how the external physical events or circumstances take on the internal psychological significance (Springer, 2014). Unlike moderators, mediator variables explain why or how certain effects occurred. Intervening variables provide a causal link between...
5 Pages(1250 words)Coursework

Variables The Internet Users and Democracy Score

... 4th March Variables: The Internet Users and Democracy Score The internet has been pointed out as a major catalyst towards the killings of democracy and at the same time, promoting the very core values of democracy in the modern world. With the increasing literacy levels, the internet has been used as a stepping stone by activists who push for what is right, truth and justice to prevail and take charge. These facts have prompted the likes of Corrales (2002) to report that the internet tends to have a greater democratic impact on regime types that are formally democratic but defective in reality. According to the data in the Gapminder, it’s imperative to note that internet reception has grown over the years to be positive in line...
4 Pages(1000 words)Research Paper

Minimizing Extraneous Variables in Clinical Research

...Minimizing Extraneous Variables in Clinical Research Minimizing Extraneous Variables in Clinical Research It is true as per the postthat research studies or research topics are usually set towards answering a specific concern; therefore, it can be noted that quantitative studies often aim at answering a specific concern (Burns and Grove, 2011). However, such has not been the case since data collection in most cases deviates from the research questions into answering other concerns around the intended research questions. Notably, qualitative studies often tries to control or minimize these extraneous variables so that the research can address specific or the intended research objects. In fact, such extraneous variable should be minimized...
1 Pages(250 words)Coursework

Controlling Extraneous Variables in Research

...Controlling Extraneous Variables in Research The unwanted variables that create impacts on the correlation between the variables that the researcher is conducting define the meaning of extraneous variables. They affect the results of the research even though they are not essential to the research. It is important to control them since they increase errors to the research (Stangor, 2011, P. 230). Researchers try their level best to avoid errors through controlling the extraneous variables, but, in what way do they attempt to control them? To control extraneous variables, researchers identify the variables that probably affect the dependent or reliant variables. They do it based on the rational analysis and past occurrence. After spotting...
1 Pages(250 words)Coursework

Relationships and Connections of Variables

...   o ... ? Providing Since Decades, tregarding the arewas by them in the early stages of romance of and the was which when it comes to romance, , i.e., ”. to and to :which andwhich is made Anwas launched by Moss & Schwebel (2001) for ionion of, which butfor . are is the but still an is thereof & andsere areed wand example asthat should it inthat ”(Coopersmith, 1967) , importance; e the romance were whiched 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. t and i Patton, 1980...
17 Pages(4250 words)Research Paper

Economic Variables and Factors That Led China Become an Emerging Economy

...EMERGING ECONOMY CHINA Abstract China is emerging as a major player on the world economy. When its economy pushes full steam ahead, other countries and worldwide business organizations are being forced to examine how to act in response. Even though there are various studies and researches regarding the variables and economic indicators that make China as the world’s largest emerging economy, it is highly important to analyze those factors in a crucial situation of credit crunch where businesses and economies are being seriously studied, analyzed and evaluated. This paper provides a detailed study on Chinese economy and its background. The main pre-crisis economic indicators and the impact of credit crisis are analyzed...
11 Pages(2750 words)Coursework

The Level of Measurement for Variables

...The Level of Measurement for Variables Question: How does knowing the level of measurement for variables help a researcher examine outcomes in a study? What is the relationship of precision and levels of measurement? Answer: Level of Measurement links a value or a category of a variable to some attributes of the observed case. Knowing the level of measurement is very important because it allows the researcher to have a clear understanding of variation in the variables. At the same time, the researcher can also have a better command over the interpretation of these variables. When the researchers have appropriately identified the levels of measurements, they are in a better position to accurately select and use the statistical tools...
7 Pages(1750 words)Coursework

The Analysis of How External Variables Are Used by Marketers to Influence Consumer Decision Making

...Report on the analysis of how external variables are used by marketers to influence Consumer decision making at the various stages of the consumer decision making model. Introduction External variables are factors that affect the successful operations of a business. On many occasions as will be shown in this study, these external behaviors are used by marketers to respond to changes in customers buying decisions, to revert the impact of the economic crisis to consumers; to expand business through the use of internet technology and globalization; and to act in response to government regulations...
10 Pages(2500 words)Term Paper

Variables that Negatively Influence and Affect Youth Development

... Topic: Variables that negatively influence and affect youth development Introduction The main aim of this research paper is to identify and assess the variables that have a negative influence on the development of the youth in the society. Different researchers classify the variables that may have an influence on the development of the youth in various ways. In regard to this research the variables will be divided into three wide classifications: individual, community and social. Every one of these categories has a number of sub-categories and since an exhaustive review of all the variables that may affect the development of young people is beyond the scope of this research, this article simply summarizes the main variables that affect...
7 Pages(1750 words)Research Paper
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic What are variables for FREE!

Contact Us