Management theories involve the study and analysis of organizations for the promotion of ways and programs that enhance better administration, management, effectiveness and efficiency of organizations…
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This paper therefore gives an account of certain management theories by providing a detailed critique on each and how they affect organizational management. Additionally, the theories are going to be discussed in correspondence to the contributions of Frederick Taylor and Max Weber, and how they would have perceived each of these theories. Before getting into the main discussion of these management theories, foremost of all, Taylor’s and Weber’s contributions will thus be looked at briefly as discussed below. Frederick Taylor’s contributions to organizational management are considered very instrumental in changing the perceptions and approach to management. Taylor came up with what is known as scientific management. The theory is credited for the belief that it would improve the working environment by motivation employees through remuneration and maintaining that managers should concentrate on activities that promote worker’s cooperation. Weber on the other hand developed principles that came to be known as ideal bureaucracy which mostly insisted on the division of labor and specialization, positive relationship and competency as the key tools for effective management (Rainey, 2011). The Hawthorne Studies The Hawthorne studies were an analysis which was conducted between 1927 and 1932 at Western Electric’s Hawthorne Company in Cicero, Illinois. Several research teams engaged in the study including Elton Mayo and Fritz Roethlisberger from Harvard faculty members and William Dickson the head of Hawthorne’s employee relations research division. The study was focused on the effects of different levels of lighting on the productivity by controlling the lighting in the area in which the employees work. These were known as the physical and environmental influences of the workplace. The lighting or illumination studies also focused on the psychological aspects such as how lighting manipulates group pressure, leadership and teamwork. The employee’s group productivity was assessed and compared with that of another employee group whose lighting was left unaltered. The findings were that as illumination was increased in the experimental employee group, productivity also improved. This was suggested that it was due to the impact of the motivational effect on the workers as they were pleased by the attention from the researchers and as a result of the interests being shown in them during the study. Regardless of the experiment, one reasonable conclusion is that the productivity of the other group not exposed to lighting continued to increase considerably. The illumination studies after a while was therefore short-lived, but its evaluation effect is still practiced to date. These findings thus become the contributing factors to the strengths and weaknesses of the Hawthorne effect. The strength of this study is that it is surely a tool that gives a framework which can be used to increase the productivity of workers within an organizational set-up through the motivation of workers, appreciating their work input and output, and maintaining quality working environments. This can be applied in today’s hospitals and healthcare systems, by improving the working conditions and work environments of medical staff and other personnel. Additionally, it enhances motivation on medical workers when consistent positive changes are made in the working environment, thereby enhancing work behavior and quality service delivery from hospitals and the health care systems. On the contrary, the weaknesses of the study are that as much as it
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The Project Management definition is a group of individuals brought together to manage the execution of a plan. The management team comes from within the organizations and consultants involved in design of the project construction documents. The basic matrix shown here has a general manager, the project manager and several functional managers.
It is rightly said by the doctors that cancer originates due to an excessive growth of a single cell. Cancer can be avoided if diagnosed at the first stage with the help of surgery and chemotherapy. Cancer affects not only the life of an individual and increases the mortality rate but it largely affects its family members mentally, socially and economically.
The author states that the popularity in the use of the two theories differs with the humanistic theory being widely used in current organizations as compared to the scientific theory. The said popularity of the humanistic theory in organizations is due to environmental uncertainties and the contingency variables.
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This paper will focus on the contribution of various authors such as Frederick Winslow Taylor, Henri Fayol and Max Weber who have applied management theories in various disciplines in terms of Classical Approach. This paper will also take into account the contributions of Douglas McGregor, Elton Mayo, and Abraham Maslow in exploring the human relation approach in various fields of management.
Several examples and cases have been considered in the later part of the study in order to provide a clear picture of the impact on the today’s management of the organizations. Several theories and related studies have been considered to meet the objective of the study.
The paper will also include references to other materials associated with the topics discussed in the three seminars.
Max Weber’s management theory, also known as the bureaucratic management theory, is one of the most common management concepts in contemporary
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