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Management & Organisation - Essay Example

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Management and Organization Institution Date of Motivation Table of Contents Table of Contents 1 Essay 1: Motivation and Meaning 2 Introduction 2 Discussions 2 Needs Theories 2 Expectancy/Goals Theories 3 Commitment 4 Identity 5 Conclusion 5 References 5 Essay 2: Sustainability 7 Introduction 7 Discussion 7 Corporate Social Responsibility 7 Reasons for popularity and the ‘business case’ 8 Reasons for Popularity 8 The “Business Case” 9 Critiques of CSR 9 Organization Management in respect to Sustainability 10 Future Demands and Needs 10 Impact of Organization on Environment 10 Measurement of sustainability 10 Conclusion 11 References 12 Essay 3: Managing Teams 13 Introducti…
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Download file to see previous pages The desire to function is motivation. Motivation refers to psychological aspects that have the ability to arouse in an individual the literal desire to achieve set goals besides sustaining, controlling, and eliciting specific goal-oriented behaviors (Kleinbeck, et. al., 2013). According to Miner (2012), Motivation plays three significant functions; assisting employees to understand their behavior, assisting managers to build and manage an effective motivation system, and provides conceptual tools for identification and analysis of various motivation problems. The following are some of the aspects of motivation within an organization. Discussions Needs Theories Indisputably, motivation revolves around behaviors and needs. Since motivation aims at the needs of the employees, various need theories towards motivation have been proposed. Examples of such needs theories include Murray’s theory of Human Personality, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, McClelland’s Achievement Motivation theory, and Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene theories. Kleinbeck, et. al. (2013) add that within the contemporary environment there have been classifications that include cognitive and behavioral theories. Theories in these categories include expectancy, equity, goal setting, and behavior modification theories. Murray’s theory of human personality focuses on two forms of needs; physical and psychological. In this theory, both physical and psychological needs are a link connecting stimulus and employee’s reaction to the same (Kunitz, 2011). Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory on the other hand focuses on five basic groups of necessities or basic needs. Maslow believes that these needs are so basic that every employee is motivated to achieve them (Kunitz, 2011). The needs include physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization. E.R.G. theory focuses on three groups of needs; existence, relatedness, and growth. The need for achievement, power, and affiliation form the epicenter of McClelland’s achievement motivation theory (Kunitz, 2011). Lastly, Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene theory focuses on the satisfiers and dissatisfies. In this theory the motivators include achievement, recognition, and specific work (Miner, 2012). Hygiene factors play a significant role in motivating employees. Expectancy/Goals Theories Expectancy or goal theories define how to motivate the employees. However, it is important to note that expectancy/goals theories are more sophisticated (Kunitz, 2011). Evidently employees are motivated if they expect they can achieve their goals that attract both intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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