We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Nobody downloaded yet

Contractual Agreements Vs Joint Ventures - Assignment Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
This research aims to evaluate and present general trends in R&D dependency and reasons for the preference of contractual agreements. Research is done to discover the modes of agreements and their emphasis on R&D during such transformation. …
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
Polish This Essay97% of users find it useful
Contractual Agreements Vs Joint Ventures
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
"Contractual Agreements Vs Joint Ventures"

Download file to see previous pages This paper refers to the R&D programs with inter-firm co-operation. The modes could be either contractual or through joint ventures. The basic objective behind these methods is to ensure cost-economization and strategic intent. R&D implies the standard activity of research oriented development wherein techno-scientific knowledge is applied to create newer procedures and products. The crux is that organizations benefit in the long run through R&D efforts and they need to plan for such activities to foster creation of better processes and products. R&D partnerships form a part of diverse relationships which two unrelated companies entertain through acquisitions or mergers. Different kinds of taxonomies got inter-twined in such understandings and they are now inseparable. The inter-dependency could be charted in any of the following ways of:
• Licensing & cross licensing: The service providers collect fee for the technological enhancement provided to their partner and sometimes swap knowledge instead of fee for cross-licensing.
• Second-sourcing ratifies reproduction of already existing products with specifications.
• Sub-contracting of one firm by the other establishes the customer-supplier relationship usually for long-term contracts.
• Joint funded R&D programs are usually contractual in nature wherein firms co-operate to perform such activities.
• Joint ventures combine the interests of two firms on a profit sharing basis. Sometimes firms with specific objectives related to different functions including R&D stipulate guidelines for performance of those functions smoothly.

This paper refers to the R&D programs with inter-firm co-operation (IV & V points listed above). The modes could be either contractual or through joint ventures. The basic objective behind these methods is to ensure cost-economization and strategic intent. General trends in R&D dependency: The MERIT-CATI list which surveys the trend of R&D dependency establishes the following results: 1960s witnessed a relatively low number of such collaborations with a gradual increase towards the end from 10 a year to 30 a year. 1970’s continued the 30 a year trend and graduated to 50 a year partnerships till the middle only to increase three-folds to around 160 a year by the decade end. 1980s are earmarked for 200 and above inter-firm partnerships in the inception and galloping further to 500 a year till its end. The first two years of 1990s slowed down the pace to 350 to 400 alliances a year but later rose to 700 odd partnerships only to set off again to 500 per year till the end. Though, there is a slowdown in the late 90s, the number of partnerships, however, is far higher than the level of partnerships activated in the early 1960s. These alliances are also circular in nature that when they decrease, they tend to increase cyclically. The notable factor is the number of joint venture (JV) collaborations vis-a-vis contractual agreements in such R&D partnerships. In 1960’s when there were meager number of R&D partnerships, most of them were entered through JV’s. Till the mid of 1970’s around 70% of the total agreements were done through the JV route and 30% of them were through contracts. However, in the early 80’s this range slowed down to 40% giving bigger hand to contractual ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Contractual Agreements Vs Joint Ventures Assignment”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/management/1394695-contractual-agreements-vs-joint-ventures
(Contractual Agreements Vs Joint Ventures Assignment)
https://studentshare.org/management/1394695-contractual-agreements-vs-joint-ventures.
“Contractual Agreements Vs Joint Ventures Assignment”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/management/1394695-contractual-agreements-vs-joint-ventures.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
CHECK THESE SAMPLES - THEY ALSO FIT YOUR TOPIC
Project Finance
This has been possible through continued exploitation of natural resources in developing countries governed by unstable governments. There is massive transfer of capital in form of debt to the emerging markets from the developed nations. The poor countries on the receiving end have poor legal systems that attract the ventures of multinational corporations, who desire the less regulated economy for quick profitability than their highly regulated home economies (Fight 2006).
30 Pages(7500 words)Assignment
Entrepreneurship joint venture
The various financing options that are discussed in the report include Venture capital, loans, debentures, owner’s capital, and grants. However, the report recommends Venture capital as the most viable option for the company due to its several merits discussed in the report.
4 Pages(1000 words)Assignment
INTERNATIONAL JOINT VENTURES
Apparently, Shanghai General Motors (SGM) is automotive based company that shares an equal joint venture between Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation (SAIC) and General Motors (Jennings 2012). Commonly known as Shanghai Motors GM, this renowned automotive company is a large manufacturer and seller of automotive brands in China and its environs such as Chevrolet, Buick, Cadillac, and Opel among others.
16 Pages(4000 words)Assignment
Joint Venture
It studies the similarities and differences in goals between the joint venture partners, the potential of the Chinese market and its incentives, as well as the hurdles the market presents to foreign investment in the form of present laws relating to joint ventures in People's Republic of China(PRC), the cultural barriers, the influence of the bureaucracy, of labour situations and so on.
12 Pages(3000 words)Assignment
Voidable Agreements and Unconscionable Contracts
Unconscionable contracts put one party at a disadvantaged position because the other party fails to disclose all material facts during an agreement. In proceedings of any case revolving around voidable or unconscionable contracts, a court of law has to check for all the necessary terms that render an agreement voidable prior to making any ruling.
2 Pages(500 words)Assignment
Free trade agreements' negative effects on U.S economic
Trade agreements have existed over time in form of multilateral and bilateral trade. The trade blocs have faced a number of challenges in their operation that have been able to overcome and others have not. Though they have
10 Pages(2500 words)Assignment
Joint Venture Investment Appraisal Report
According to the report multinational firms are exposed to more risk than domestic firms. These risks include agency costs, environmental constraints, regulatory constraints and Ethical constraints. An understanding of the foreign exchange markets, international financing, different regulatory environments and management of taxation is important to the MNC.
11 Pages(2750 words)Assignment
Sacroiliac joint/pelvic girdle pain
Approximately 77% of pregnant women report LBP at some point and about 22% of women experience PGP at some stage in pregnancy. This paper will explain these clinical models and present path physiology, clinical examinations and
6 Pages(1500 words)Assignment
Joint Military Operations
ut against Vicksburg, Mississippi, which was at the time part of the last Confederate-controlled section of the Mississippi River.1 Vicksburg was a fortress city that dominated the entire block of last Confederate-controlled section and so defeating this section was not going to
9 Pages(2250 words)Assignment
Financing New Ventures
Its recent outbreak has hit hard on the Airlines industry. Airlines including emirates, British airways, air France has implemented bans on their flights to and from the areas that have been affected with
1 Pages(250 words)Assignment
Let us find you another Assignment on topic Contractual Agreements Vs Joint Ventures for FREE!
Contact us:
+16312120006
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us