Extract of sample "Adapting Kohlberg to Enhance the Assessment of Managers Moral Reasoning"
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This review seeks to analyze how the author achieves an efficient moral assessment tool of moral reasoning at the work place and the shortcomings of the article, especially in the six stages of moral reasoning. From a personal perspective, the theories of moral judgment interviews and the standard issue scoring method have significantly changed, and may be inapplicable in some instances. Background Information The article was an effort by James Weber to highlight the importance and methods of assessing manager’s moral reasoning. The article aims at enhancing the awareness of moral reasoning of managers and its influence in decision making regarding ethical situations and moral dilemmas. The ultimate understanding and predictability of organization and managerial ethical behavior will successfully help in designing an appropriate guides and incentives that will assist managers in decision-making that regards organizational moral and ethical issues. Summary Moral and ethical issues are a common feature in organizations. However, there are no precise methods available for managers to base their decision-making processes concerning ethical and moral conflicts. There have been efforts to design a model that is applicable to all ethical and moral conflicts, notably the Moral judgment Interview (MJI) and the Standard Issues Scoring method, by Lawrence Kohlberg (Weber 295). The two theories try to lay the foundation for assessing moral situations and the consequent decision making process. Nonetheless, Kohlberg assessment method has a specific design of assessing individuals from childhood to adulthood, thus Weber proposes a few key changes that will counter the unnecessary characteristics. The modification concentrates on four areas. One, mixing dilemmas that are more familiar and with less familiar dilemmas in an organizational environment, then, a follow-up in form of interview questions that analyze the moral reasoning of managers with regards to organizational values. Thirdly, it considers the flexibility of using a written or oral interview, and lastly, a simple, reliable formula that assesses manager’s responses while identifying their moral reasoning stage. Weber then moves to analyze Kohlberg’s stages of moral reasoning with adequate details of each level and stage. According to Kohlberg, individuals develop moral reasoning in three levels: pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional. Each of the three levels has two stages, making the moral reasoning model to have six stages in total (Weber 296). At the pre-conventional level, an individual responds to “wrongs” and “rights” by consequential actions like punishment and rewards, or through imposition of power by the makers of the rules. In the first stage (Obedience and Punishment Orientation), consequential physical actions determine the badness or goodness. The second stage (Instrumental Relativist Orientation) defines a right action as the one that satisfies an individual’s needs. Equality and fairness elements interpretation are in terms of pragmatic or physical consequences directed towards the decision maker. At the second level, aligning to the expectations of the society or family is valuable. Stage three (“Good Boy Nice Girl”), place emphasis on behavior that helps others and is approved by them. Individuals conform to personalities that exhibit the “natural” behavior or the stereotypical majority image. In stage four (Law and Order Orientation), individuals make their decision as members of a society (Weber 296). The foundation of this perception is the societal setup,
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While a ‘history’ can be taken, it is not the same as understanding the nature of the culture from which a person has developed their lifestyle and their belief systems. In order to understand what the tool reveals, one must have some understanding of what it means to come from different regions and how they affect the overall health of an individual’s habits.
It is often said that modern managers are showing less respect towards morality while dealing with organizational matters. They wanted to increase the profits at any cost. In their strive for maximizing profits, they often forced to sacrifice moral values and ethics while taking decisions and formulating strategies.
The paper embraces approaches that support the viewpoint of its authors and do not compare the results and findings reached with opponent researches.
In the article Hayes and Allinson (2004) explore the gender-centered perspective which characterizes women managers and women in general as being more intuitive than male managers and men in general.
This paper will focus on the strategies used for justifying moral theories, as this is generally where the theorists go their separate ways in constructing the supreme principle of morality. As such each theory may yield different answers to the three questions raised under morality: 1) Authoritative question: Why ought I be moral 2) Substantive question: Which interest ought I to take favourable account of 3) Distributive question: Whose interest ought I to take favourable account of
Nevertheless Lawrence Kohlberg desired to study about morality, and did so by employing a few of the most fascinating, if not divisive performance. Fundamentally, he would inquire children along with adults to try to resolve moral difficulties contained in little tales, and to do so vocally so he could tag along their reasoning.
The latter part of the essay addresses a naturalistic interpretation of Hume's reconciling project. The essay here looks in detail at the complexities of Hume's idea of freedom and asks what kind of freedom it is that he sees as sufficient for moral responsibility.
The basic motive of this project is to analyze Michael Tooley’s article, “Moral Status of Cloning Humans”. He says that the idea or theory of genetic determinism is not correct, therefore, cloning to produce persons cannot be labeled intrinsically wrong. Tooley further asserts that not only is cloning not immoral, but it can help us improve our lives.
This research will begin with the statement that morality is one of the factors that affect people’s decisions. It defines values that an individual seeks to respect when making decisions. A person may follow such principles, strictly, or may sometimes rely on the moral principles weakly. Parsimony test shows the extent to which a person sticks with moral principles.
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