The main subject of this study is organizational culture and its resistance to change. It speaks of the different ways organizations adopt for working. In this respect the various theories and models pertaining to the study would be explained with special focus on the views, opinions and arguments presented by different authors…
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Writers have disagreed to the ways in which organizational cultures can be changed. There are primarily two schools of thought based on the concepts of organizational culture. One of them is based on shared values while the other is based on working practices. According to Waterman and Peters, shared values form the basic component of organizational cultures. However, Hofstede has suggested that shared perceptions of the daily practices and not the shared values form the basic components or the core of organizational culture. Incorporating changes in the shared value is considered to be more difficult as compared to changes in working practices as people remain more deeply rooted with the values rather than the practices (Black, 2003, p.16). Business management consultants and organizational socialists have increasingly stressed upon the role of soft skills in organizations. This has been the case as organizational culture is the label for the shared mental software shared by the people in the organization. Organizational culture can be deviated from the conventional national culture for creating a competitive advantage of the firm. This is supposed to be especially true when organizational culture reinforces the company strategies. Studies conducted at IRIC has revealed that there is a significant correlation between the cultural strength i.e. the homogeneity of the culture and the orientation of results in the organization (Black, 2003, p.16). ...
Organizational culture can be deviated from the conventional national culture for creating a competitive advantage of the firm. This is supposed to be especially true when organizational culture reinforces the company strategies. Studies conducted at IRIC has revealed that there is a significant correlation between the cultural strength i.e. the homogeneity of the culture and the orientation of results in the organization (Black, 2003, p.16). The best organizations are those which have their cultures as customer driven and also performance oriented. One of the organizations with strong organizational cultures is Disneyland. The strong culture of the organizations is depicted through all its activities like the actions of employees, running of parks and the consistency and positivity with which visitors were treated in the organization (Schermerhorn, 2009). Because this study focuses on the constructs of organizational culture it is important to make reference to the iceberg model which makes a strong depiction of the organizational culture. Literature has repeatedly focused on the terms organizational climate and organizational culture. Researchers have often made the two terms interchangeable. Martin (2002) has written a book on organizational culture providing a comprehensive review of the literature on organizational culture and interesting perspective on the various issues which are related with the subject (McLean, 2005, p.3). Looking at Schein’s iceberg model, this includes all the elements of the iceberg which are under the level of water and all that which are visible. This is demonstrated in the figure below. Figure 1: The iceberg model in organization culture (Source: Schermerhorn, 2009) On
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