Principle of Economics Table of Contents Table of Contents 2 Question 1a 3 Question 1b 5 Question 2 6 Four Phases of Business Cycle 6 Exchange Rate Fluctuation 9 Uncertainty in Confidence Level 9 Uncertain Job Creation 10 External Environment 10 Changes in Policies 10 References 12 Question 1a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is conceptually referred as the process of measuring the value of all manufactured and traded goods as well as services in the national market, within a specific time period…
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As stated in Sloman & et. al. (2012), various policymakers and economists use GDP as the measure of economic well-being. Countries are also often graded according to their GDP values in order to decode their economic development in comparison to other economies in the global network (Sloman & et. al., 2012). However, an in-depth understanding to the concept reveals that economists cannot or most justifiably should not focus only on measuring GDP when quantifying the progress of an economy. In other words, there are certain limitations possessed by the concept of evaluating national progress or development depending exclusively on GDP. For instance, GDP has often been criticised to lack in measuring the outputs of all services as well as goods. As a result, the values of few goods as well as services go unrecorded; thus, understating the nation’s economic growth. There are mainly two reasons for GDP to lack in recording goods as well as services. For example, when people tend to perform their own labour work without involving a third party, the manpower invested or otherwise marketed is not recorded in GDP statics. Illustratively, if parents hire a babysitter for their baby, the service cost is counted as the part of GDP; but, if the parents decide to stay back at home and deliver their services to take care of their baby, the countable opportunity cost of hiring a professional is not considered as the part of the GDP. At the national level, hen similar attributes remain uncounted or ignored to be measured appropriately, the national activities remain understated and the true value of economic production becomes erroneous (Sloman & et. al, 2012). Similarly, GDP calculation procedure also does not take into account the currency flow generated through illegal trading that is commonly attributed as ‘underground economy’. Underground economy specifically comprises of illegal and undeclared transactions. The transaction could be illegal in the forms of drugs trading, prostitution and smuggling among others. Again, the transaction can be stated as undeclared only in the sense that they are not exposed for the tax purpose and hence, remain unidentified in the GDP calculation procedure (Sloman & et. al., 2012). It is in this context that GDP lacks accounting for intangible variables sourced within the nation to ensure the well-being such as health, happiness, and woes. It also does not include environmental impacts of production functions practiced within the economy, additionally ignoring the unequal distribution of health (Sloman & et. al., 2012). Notably, one major problem faced by economists when measuring well-being or similar intangible variables by using GDP is that it does not include population of a nation into an account. If these variables are taken into account, countries like India and China, those have greater volume of population, shall be better off in comparison to Australia, which is much advanced than the mentioned nations in terms of technology, infrastructure and other production function variables. Again, as per the common principles of GDP, when the production increases it may be attributed to the technological advancement. On the contrary,
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For instance, Adam Smith’s theory of the invisible hand argues that when people engage in business and selling they are governed by the invisible hand of the market that helps regulate prices and ensures that businesses and people act in certain ways. Indeed, the nature of economics is like psychology in that it presents theories of human behavior.
The profit maximization is equivalent to maximization of the social welfare (Schmalensee, Armstrong & Porter 2007). This is because all gains from trade, i.e. social welfare, are absorbed by the producer, with the consumer getting no share of it. Social welfare is converted into profits for the producer.
In the past, people used to indulge themselves in such practices without having the basics on the principles of economics. As a result, economic development was not achieved which necessitated the improvement in the approach to the operation of business by individuals as well as institution.
The recent report released by IMF in 2010 revealed that in 2009, China had a per capita GDP of US$3677.89, which ranked it on the low and middle income interval. It is also surprising comparing this figure with what some of the leading economies in the world earn.
The economy is continually growing at a rate of 1.8 percent annually (World Factbook, 2013). The country is currently on its way to recovery from a recession although the present situation is better than it was in 2007 and 2008. The unemployment rate to date is estimated to be 9 percent which is high as compared to the recent past (World Factbook, 2013).
as Petroleum products fertilizers steel Exports in $ $263.9 billion $1.56 trillion 104.3 billion Export partners by % China 29.5% Japan 19.3% South Korea 8.0% India 4.9% Canada 19% Mexico 14% China 7% Japan 4.5% Japan 26.6 South Korea 19 India 12 Singapore 5.7 China 5.4 Imports commodities Machinery and transport equipment, telecommunications equipment and parts; computers and office machines, petroleum products and crude oil Consumer goods, industrial supplies crude oil and components, computers and accessories, automotive vehicles, food, and beverages Machinery and transport equipments food chemical Imports in $ $258.1 billion $2.3 trillion 25.33 billion Import partn
gular gross domestic product, accounts for any and all changes in the price levels and provides a more accurate figure than the regular gross domestic product.
The unemployment rate is used in economic studies to determine those of the labor force that are without jobs. These
sought to apply a broader theoretical and conceptual tradition of economic thought by placing emphasis on neo-classical synthesis – a combination of neo-classical economics and Keynesian economics.
Conservative economics is based on Milton Friedman’s teachings and