The recession is a downward economic trend in the business cycle that is characterized by a decline in production and unemployment, whereby the household incomes and spending decline by a great margin. …
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In order to curb this, the government of the United States, and the international monetary fund, took some micro and macroeconomic measures to curb this trend, which led to a great economic down turn. This was achieved by using some monetary and fiscal policies. The monetary process is the process through which the central bank and other money rendering institutions of a country controls the supply of money, the availability of money and the cost of money or the interest rate so that they can achieve a certain common objective. These objectives are done towards the growth and stability of the economy. The monetary policies can be either the contractionary or the expansionary objective. The aim of the expansionary policy increases the total supply of money in the economy, while the contractionary policies decrease the supply of money in the economy. ...
It is the mandate of the federal reserve of the United States to enact the monetary policies. Board of governors runs the Federal Reserve. The factors, which they considered and applied to curb inflationary tendencies, are the reserve requirements, discount rate, open market operations, and printing money. Most banks in many countries changed the reserve requirements to encourage more banks to start in order to increases the amount of money circulating in the economy. The central banks of these countries have the authority to change the amount that banks should hold in the central bank so that they can be given the right to operate. In the US, the Federal Reserve has the supremacy to set the quantity of the deposits that the associate banks can deposit in order to be given the mandate to operate. To curb the recession, the FED decreased the amount of reserve deposits. The motive was to encourage more investors in the banking industry therefore increasing the amount of money circulating in the economy. This monetary objective achieved its goal since more banks had more money at hand, which increased spending, and possibly inflation (East Tennessee State University web). The other monetary policy used was the discount rate. Discount rate is the discount on the rate of interest rate that the Federal Reserve charges on the banks on the money that they borrow from the Federal Reserve. The central banks decreased or lowered the discount rate during recession. Their objective was to encourage the banks to borrow money from the central banks at a lower rate to increase the amount of money circulating in the economy. This would in turn encourage
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All the media across the world is talking about recession every day. Whether it is a news paper, on a news channel on television, or some news bulletin on radio, everywhere people are talking about recession, the methods to recover from the recessionary situation and so on.
3). Consistent with the framework, the United Kingdom’s fiscal objective over the medium term is to ensure that spending and taxation are distributed fairly across generations (HM Treasury 2008, p. 3). Over the short term, however, the UK government’s fiscal policy supports UK monetary policy so “automatic stabilizers” can smoothen the path of the economy (HM Treasury 2008, p.
For economists, these fluctuations in output and employment are parts or the phases of business cycle. And as the term cycle suggests, these fluctuations are normal and predictable. But recessions, as phase of business cycle, are as irregular as they are common.
economy. There were several strategies introduced by policy makers to combat such occurrences. After all, no economy is safe from depression and market forces continue to follow cyclical trends. The discussion below will tackle some of the important aspects related to depression.
Indeed, much success has always been realized in the context of Canadian economic development to the extent that one is left to wonder about the policies in place and the various measures the government has put into place to ensure the country sails through these turbulent economic times.
Monetary policy in the US has mainly been to maintain stability in interest rates and money markets while on the other hand the fiscal policy has been aimed at increasing revenue for the government while encouraging investments. These two forms of policies in the US work together to in ensuring macroeconomic stability.
The author states that when a business cycle fails to follow as predictable trend, then it results into unfavorable conditions which are negative for a business to thrive in the economy. Study has shown that the period prior to a recession phase, many businesses experience a boom which leads to optimistic but instead, the economy slumps.
Most declines have been trivial in the regional and national levels, with the exception of a few serious cases like the East Asian crisis of 1997 (Radelet and Sachs, 1998). It triggered short and long standing effects in nations,
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