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Explain why emissions' trading is a compromise between a) the Pigovian taxation approach and b) the pure Coase theorem approac - Essay Example

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Emissions’ trading Name: Instructor: Task: Date: Emissions’ trading Emissions’ trading is a market-based method of reducing pollutants through the offering of financial incentives after managing to reduce pollutants production. Usually the work of the government is control the amount of pollutants produced, by setting the limit of the pollutants that can be produced…
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Explain why emissions trading is a compromise between a) the Pigovian taxation approach and b) the pure Coase theorem approac
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Extract of sample "Explain why emissions' trading is a compromise between a) the Pigovian taxation approach and b) the pure Coase theorem approac"

Download file to see previous pages 8). Pigouvian taxation approach Emission trading and Pigouvian taxation are both the approaches for reducing the emission s of greenhouse gases by providing incentives to firms and individuals. The Pigouvian tax involves the increase of cost of production of carbon by the government, and the market determines the efficient quantity. On the contrary, the emission trade entails the regulation of the amount of emission by the government with a market-determined price of the carbon, based on the reallocation of polluting permits (Mabey 2001 p. 61). Pigouvian tax effectively requires a polluter to internalize the cost of pollution by imposing taxes. This tax represents the cost to society, because of polluting the environment. The emission trade and the Pigovian approach can lead to the same reduction of pollutants. Emissions trade though is more advantageous, because the rights to pollute are given through a market to those who can make efficient use of them (Lane 2009 p. 145). For companies to trade their carbon credits, they have to reduce their emission. However, companies that generate higher emission will have to buy more credits (Tiwari & Dubey 2010 p. 316). Pure Coase theorem approach Coase theorem describes the financial effectiveness of an economic allocation, or the result in the presence of externality. According to this theorem, if there is the possibility of externality, and there are the absences of transaction costs, bargaining can cause an efficient result without considering the first allocation of property rights. Poor definition of property rights can obstruct the coasian agreement (Callan & Thomas 2009, p.69). The coase theorem is the motivation principle behind emission trade because when there are absence of transaction expenses, the involved individuals can negotiate to a jointly beneficial result (Fine & Milinakis 2009 p. 101) Bargaining to a mutually helpful outcome can be expensive because the transactions costs are almost never zero. This concept is very important for the market-based environmental policy. Reduction of transaction costs is a fundamental factor in facilitating people to use markets to handle and optimize pollution. Coase theorem rests upon restraining assumptions like the small size groups, and near-zero transaction costs. However, in practice, transaction costs are often prohibitive and the government has to intercede (Harris 2003 p. 39). Two major approaches to environmental regulations are the use of command and control together with economic instruments (Gokcekus, Umut & LaMoreaux 2011 p.257). Command and control methods like pollution standards and targets are commonly found in the developing and the developed countries. Actors who fail to meet the levels that were specified by the standard are liable to sanctions. This is in contrast to economic instruments, which work by modifying markets and the incentives of agents in order to achieve publicly desirable amount of pollution (Levin 2009 p. 741). Market creation for the emission trade is an efficient method of lowering transaction costs. In reducing the transaction expenses, it is important to define and enforce property rights so that a company that has a right to emit a certain amount per year can trade away some or all the rights, and will be held accountable for the amount that it emits. Therefore, if ...Download file to see next pages Read More
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