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Word Count : 2760 Dated 4th June 2011 Pursuing Criminal Justice - Law Enforcement Abstract Law enforcement is one of the most important components of criminal justice system. It helps in providing justice to the affected persons in the society by reducing the crime rate and by faster processing of criminal cases…
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Several strict regulations in law enforcement were introduced because of which similar terrorist attacks could be avoided after 2001. Though law enforcement brought numerous positive changes, it also resulted in inconvenience to public in terms of free movement and employment and government could successfully handled the public resistance. In future, the big challenges for law enforcement would be in the form of terrorism, regionalism and drug trafficking. The coordination of US Police department with the law enforcement agencies of other nations like Mexico and Columbia would certainly help in reducing the crime rate including drug trafficking. It is predicted that the law enforcement would be highly flexible and dynamic in nature for successfully handing these challenges. Key words : law enforcement, criminal justice, terrorism, drug trafficking a. What is your definition of justice as it relates to the law enforcement? Explain the origins of law enforcement. Discuss how you intend to promote your definition of justice in your intended criminal justice career. Equal treatment of persons in the circumstances of unfair means is most important for any welfare society. Justice is needed to be provided to the people when they are subjected to ill treatment in the society. Hence, justice can be defined as any type of practice which helps the people to get reasonable compensation or treatment so that fair means of utilities and services would be guaranteed. In other words, justice means the process of facilitating and doing right things (Sandel, 2009). This holds more relevance when criminal acts are committed in the society. We regularly come across different incidents in the world related to forceful killings, rape, sabotage and drug trafficking etc. and the persons who are affected due to this must be provided with the sufficient justice and at he same time, the other people in the society should be provided with right and safe environment for dignified way of life. The justice can be provided by various measures like framing rules in the form of legislation, enforcing the same through police or any other parallel law control system and through thorough judicial review and through corrections in the form jail reforms (Mays and Ruddell, 2007). In other words, the justice can be ensured only by establishing these three different components of criminal justice system i.e. law enforcement through police, law adjudication through courts and corrections in the form of jails and parole (Siegel and Senna, 2007). Since time immemorial, the people were subjected through various criminal justice procedures and irrespective of the region, the Kings used to appoint some specific experienced noble persons for providing the justice based on case to case. One common principle in all these types of criminal justice procedures is to apply the element of truth finding and analysis after going through all the related parties of the incident and delivering judgment in favor of the affected persons or victims. While delivering the judgment, the emphasis was always given to create an element of fear among other people that they would be punished strictly if indulged in illegal activities and this helped the society to find less criminal rate. This has given foundation for the modern courts and their legal principles through out the world. At the same time, in some of the cases based on the merit, the opportunity was
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Threats may either appear in the form of terrorism or from other intelligence groups or from the espionage. It may arise within the country, against the existing government or social systems. Though most of the federal law enforcement groups are investigative groups, they are not only focused on investigations but stand for the people. One can see that the importance of the federal agencies is growing day by day because the threats from militants and others have considerably increased. Such kinds of federal law enforcement agencies include Federal Air Marshalls, Secret Service, FBI, Untouchables, C.I.A and Federal Corrections etc. The organization and functions of these agencies vary in different fields and can be cited in the fol...
Various sections of the CA are coming into force over a staged process and the relevant provision relating to authority is sections 39 and 40, which came into force on 1 October 2007.
Section 39(1) of the CA provides that “the validity of any act done by a company shall not be called into question on the ground of lack of capacity by reason of anything in the company’s constitution”
Additionally, section 40(1) provides that: “In favor of a person dealing with a company in good faith, the power of the board of directors to bind the company, or authorize others to do so, shall be deemed to be free of any limitation under the company’s constitution”.
This expression of willingness can assume several forms, such as a facsimile, letter, electronic mail or a telephonic message. The intention is an objective consideration and in the case of Smith v, Hughes 4 relevant consideration was deemed to be the manner in which a reasonable person would view intention. Furthermore, the law distinguishes between an offer and an invitation to treat. The latter is not an offer but merely an indication of willingness to negotiate a contract.
An instance of this is provided by the case of Gibson v Manchester City Council5. In this case, the phrase may be prepared to sell was held to constitute an invitation to treat and not an offer. Indeed, the Gibson decision challenged the tradition...
When examining the decision of previous court comments that are made obiter dicta will not be part of the precedent since often obiter dicta comments are speculative remarks on how the judge might have acted if the facts had been different.
Binding precedents come from earlier case law and, as suggested in the wording, must be followed even if the judge in the present case does not agree with the legal reasoning of the judge in the earlier case. In order for a precedent to be binding the facts of the present case to have to be sufficiently similar to the earlier case. Decisions given in a lower court to the one in which the present case is being heard will not be binding. For a decision to set a precedent it must have b...
Under the English criminal law, several past and current legislations were made in order to protect the children from corporal punishment or becoming a victim of physical abuse. Despite our effort to prevent parents from using physical force in disciplining their children, the British Government remains unconvinced that the law which protects the children from physical punishment is sufficient (Keating, 2008). Physical punishment such as ‘smacking’, ‘slapping’, ‘kicking’, or ‘spanking’ is referring to the act of causing a degree of pain or discomfort to the child. (Niland, 2009, p. 6) With regard to the legal issues behind child protection against physical abuse, this study aims to d...
It is logical to look at political philosophy within the framework of history and ethics emerging from it. As could be observed, the question of justice, and how we perceive its nature has remained the prime concern throughout history. This will include, among other things, the existence of specific obligations towards each other and towards the state, the existence of natural rights, claims of property/liberty and equality.
In face of this, the Anglo-American political philosophy has seen famous philosophers like John Rowels, Robert Nozick and recently Amritya Sen to focus on issues and arguments concerning the above...(political Philosophy, 2005 pp1)
As political philosophy is about politics mainly, it s...
The main issue that needs to be tackled first is whether there is a valid contract between Richard Brat, carrying on trade as Brighton Greens, (buyer) and Molly and Kelly trading in First Grade Granny Smith apples as Holy Farm.
Apparently, there was, when considering their verbal and written mail sent by Richard to Holy Farm on August 1 reading as follows –“Please deliver 20 boxes –Granny Smith ‘Brighton Greens’. Cheque mailed.“
It may be seen that the mail order does not specify the category or grade of apples to be supplied, but one of the implied conditions of sale could be that the goods ordered need to correspond with the goods inspected and tested.
Using children to fight wars is not only morally abhorrent but very bad very the physical and mental health of the children in question. That is in part why a series of international laws and treaties have come into effect to try to deal with this scourge. But the issue is more complicated than that. While child soldiers are victims of war crimes, they too can also perpetrate serious breaches of the law of armed conflict. Under normal circumstances, individuals who commit such acts, be they combatants or not,2 would be vulnerable to prosecution. However, because children in such situations are victims as well as perpetrators and because of the special protections afforded to children under international law, many have questioned w...
They are on trial and will be dealt with fairly. These laws ensure that no one, even if he or she has committed a crime is abused or punished cruelly. Following the history of civilization like in china, we see the traces of systems for Criminal justice in order to provide safety for the citizens. Evolving through the years laws have been modified and changed to form the system that we know today. From its start, the “U.S. criminal justice system” has advocated the idea of “checks and balances”. To avoid dictatorial rule, the people who founded this system in such a way that one person was not given control or authority completely to punish the criminals. The idea of assigning a ‘jury...
New and complex issues have arisen which demanded fresh understanding and handling of cases involved them. This has resulted in the enhanced development of specialized laws e.g. cyber laws and interpretation of those laws. The same is true with Media Laws. Media has developed much in the last half-century. As it evolved as a profession and more people started to join it, there arose the levels of money involved in it. With this grew the contractual obligations on the parts of parties and concerned laws e.g. patent laws, privacy laws, and copyrights laws, etc. also started to play their parts. With these issues, the role of law in the media industry also reached a new height. Mathew Fisher, the appellant, joined a band with Mr...
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