The discussion of this paper takes into concern the Russia as the largest country in the world rich in resources like oil, gas, coal, metals and chemicals that present up to 80% of the budgetary income. Forests make up to 69% of the total land. …
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The paper tells that oil and gas are the backbone of Russia economy. They are drawn from the easily exploitable reservoirs ignoring balanced drilling on new sites and this continually degrades the environment and puts the environmental balance at stake. The rate of environmental fragmentation is expected to increase as the need to exploit new reservoirs to maintain supply of the products. More pressure comes from environmental pollution from oil and gas spillages that are estimated to be at least two in a day. In Russia, in zones of high population, there is poor water quality due to overuse, poor water distribution and closeness to polluting industries. According to the Islington, air pollution is very rampant with over 69% of the cities affected. Islington reports that pollution rate is constantly rising due to nonconformity to laid down environmental policies, low production discipline, lack of investment in technologies which are not detrimental to the environment. Untreated industrial wastes cause a lot of pollution to the environment. Only 40% of the waste produced is treated, 60% is piled in open sites and this causes lots of pollution to the environment. According to the Russian constitution, there are rules controlling the exploitation and maintenance of natural resources that include water bodies, forests and land. The government also controls economic activities to ensure sustainable economic development. Article 35 stipulates that regulations shall be adhered to, to ensure that water bodies are maintained in a state meeting the quality and heath standards as stipulated in the constitution. Limits as to the allowed level of chemical substances, radioactive materials and other water pollutants released into the water bodies and concentration of industrial effluents in the water channeled into water bodies must not go above the set limit. Water quality indicators shall be set and applied on each river basin and the quality of water in the river shall be determined according to standards set out in the constitution of Russian federation. According to article 42, industrial water use shall be structured in such a way that it protects the ecology of the water body; this includes the aquatic life and quality of the water. According to article 44, water bodies can be used as drainage systems in accordance to the law. It is illegal to discharge wastes in water bodies which have a medicinal value and which are protected by the government. According to the Russian forest code, (chapter 9) use of forests should be carried out in a way that does not damage the ecosystem; this includes the environment, resources and organisms inhabiting the forests. Forestry management strives to preserve, nurture the environment, conserve water catchment basins and improve forests. According to the land code of Russian federation(1), land protection is meant to prevent degradation, pollution, littering and destruction of the natural ecosystem by the effects of exploration for economic purposes. It is also meant to restore and develop lands that have already been degraded and destroyed by economic activities. Article 13 states that land owners are legally obliged to preserve soil fertility though continuous improvement and restoration. Economic Theories Economic theories make a substantial contribution to the application of new models to old real problems in the society; they help in building economic knowledge thus giving a platform for economic development. The New Economic Theory According to martin (199, p. 2), the new economic geography lays its fundamentals on economic localization based on growing
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(Resource and Environmental Economics: Russia Term Paper)
“Resource and Environmental Economics: Russia Term Paper”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/macro-microeconomics/1396265-resource-and-environmental-economics-russia.
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I argue in this paper
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