The paper "Air Legislation - the Shell Model in Analyzing Human Factors in the Aviation System" states that the model helps to determine the underlying factors in management and the role of the components in achieving organizational goals, gives a clear approach towards factors when ensuring the system runs appropriately…
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The model is derived from the initial letters of its components which are: software, hardware, environment and liveware. It places great emphasis on the human element and the role they play in the execution of duties and the interaction with other interfaces. Since the human being is mainly the cause of most accidents within the aviation system, the model looks at several factors that interact with the operators to cause system failure and affect performance (Cacciabue, 2004).
The major elements in the model relate to hardware, software, the environment and liveware. There are four forms of interfaces. The L-H interface is the interaction between the human operator and the machines in the aviation system. It relates to the match of human characteristics with the equipment and tools such as designing controls to correspond to sensory or designing seats to match the human bodies of passengers. The design of displays and controls should indicate proper information that can be easily understood by people so as to reduce the occurrence of errors. Secondly is the L-S interface whose main role is to provide a link between the liveware and the software. It involves the formulation of software that matches the human users and ensuring that it is possible to implement it. Thirdly is the L-E interface which forms the link between the liveware and the environment. Human operators interact with both internal and external environment and therefore are able to adapt to various situations. Lastly is the L-L interface which relates to links between the central human operator and any other person in the system for execution of activities (HELMREICH, 1991).
The aircraft in this incident was on route to Lanzarote airport in the Canary Islands from East Midlands the plane which had been subjected to Boroscope Inspections the previous night had not been refitted which resulted to loss of almost all the oil on the flight and the consequential shutdown of both engines during landing. The crew had to divert to Luton airport due to loss of oil and oil pressure on both engines.
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