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Types of Social Research - Coursework Example

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Types of Social Research Name University Types of Social Research Assignment 1 From the careful analysis of Chapter 1 of the text book, the student can come to the understanding that there is a multitude of different ways to approach and gain an inference with regards to different research questions…
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Types of Social Research Types of Social Research Assignment From the careful analysis of Chapter of the text book, the can come to the understanding that there is a multitude of different ways to approach and gain an inference with regards to different research questions. Oftentimes, the exact same question can be framed within a different study and yield something of an entirely different result. This should not be meant to relate the fact that research methods necessarily deviate so greatly as to not be trusted entirely; rather, it merely helps to underscore the fact that a different approach and methodological standpoint help analyze different aspects of the situation/hypotheses/original question. As a means of discussing different approaches in research, this particular analysis will seek to draw a level of inference with regards to four different pieces of research that were read for this unit. This research includes the following: Bordia & Rosnow, 1998; Rosnow, Esposito & Gibney, 1997; Walker & Blaine 1991; Principe, Kanaya, Ceci, & Singh, 2006. In such a way, it is the hope of this author that the reader will be able to come to an understanding with regards to the research focus and whether or not each of these studies utilize descriptive, relational, or experimental means of approach to the particular issues at hand. Firstly, with regards to Rosnow et al. (1998), it can definitively be said that the research that is presented is descriptive. This is due to the fact that the descriptive research, also known as the statistical research, seeks to lay a level of analysis based upon key characteristics that the given groups or populations might exhibit. As comparative to an analytical research position, which might seek to answer how/why/when a particular incident or characteristic occurred, statistical or descriptive research focuses mainly upon what already exists within a particular population and/or group. Within such an understanding, the reader can and should come to an appreciation of the fact that descriptive research does not have any need or necessity to measure the effect of the variables that it analyzes; rather, it only seeks to describe them. Similarly, the study by Rosnow et al. (1997) is what can be termed as relational research due to the fact that the subject matter, hypothesis, and methodology are strictly concentrated upon analyzing and relating the existence or nonexistence of rumor within human psychology and the impacts that this has upon many other psychological functions and higher levels of thought patterns that humans regularly exhibit (Rosnow et al., 1997). Due to the fact that this particular type of research is specifically interested in the type of connection that is considered to exist between two or more variables, this approach is something of a poster book definition of the relational research model. Likewise, by the same token, Walker and Blaine (1991) also seek to measure the level of correlation in key value that exists between rumors and false memories within preschoolers (Walker & Blaine, 1991). Due to the specificity of this particular approach, it leaves little doubt in the mind of the reader that the authors are focused upon the impacts that rumor will have upon the relational context of preschoolers, memories, and actions (past, present, and future). Finally, the perusal of the study done by Principe, Kanaya, Ceci, and Singh (2006) makes it clear to the student that this particular study utilizes a strictly experimental approach. Although all studies which have herein been defined use a certain level of experimentation in order to prove their point, the experimental approach necessarily denotes one within the field of psychology in which the use of dependent and independent variables is utilized (Principe et al., 2006). In such a way, one can understand the independent variable is managed by the experiment or/and the dependent variable is measured. This particular dynamic is perfectly illustrated within the study in question due to the fact that all these elements are included within the research, defined, and elaborated upon greatly. It must be understood that there is not any single approach that is superior to another; rather, each has been chosen according to the researchers’ own understandings of how their own approach could be best suited by a particular methodology. It should also be understood that choosing a research method within such a context is always something of a dangerous maneuver due to the fact that a certain level of bias in the experiment can easily be evidenced with regards to the way in which the researcher attempts to explain or draw inference from a given situation. In such a way, it is incumbent upon the researcher in each and every situation to fully analyze the problem and draw from this understanding the best approach which could be used to define and elaborate upon the Keith theories and hypotheses that they wish to expound upon within their particular piece of research. References Principe, G. F., Kanaya, T., Ceci, S. J., & Singh, M. (2006). Believing is Seeing: How Rumors Can Engender False Memories in Preschoolers. Psychological Science, 17(3), 243-248. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2006.01692.x Rosenthal, R. & Rosnow, R. (2008). Essentials of behavioral research : methods and data analysis. Boston: McGraw-Hill. Rosnow, R. L., Esposito, J. L., & Gibney L. (1988). Factors influencing rumor spreading: Replication and extension. Language & Communication, 8(1), 29-42. Walker, C. J., & Blaine, B. (1991). The virulence of dread rumors: A field experiment. Language & Communication, 11(4), 291-297. doi:10.1016/0271-5309(91)90033-R Assignments 2 and 3 Cahill, S., & Valadez, R. (2013). Growing Older With HIV/AIDS: New Public Health Challenges. American Journal Of Public Health, 103(3), e7-e15. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2012.301161 Unlike much of the research on this particular topic, this particle article discusses the means by which depression and anxiety associated with HIV/AIDs diagnosis becomes progressively worse with age. Although the evidence of depression/anxiety is common with individuals first diagnosed with the disease, medical research has not been concentrated upon measuring whether or not there is an exponential rate of growth for this determinant factor over time. However, as the article proves, there is most certainly a clear and definitive linkage. Cain, R., Jackson, R., Prentice, T., Collins, E., Mill, J., & Barlow, K. (2013). The Experience of HIV Diagnosis Among People Living With HIV/AIDS and Depression. Qualitative Health Research, 23(6), 815-824. doi:10.1177/1049732313482525 Focusing on a more experiential approach, this particular study analyzes the ways in which anxiety and stress impact on the day-to-day routines as well as personal and professional relationships that the individuals suffering from HIV/AIDs invariably experience. What the article does is go to a great deal of length to uncover the fact that although HIV/AIDs diagnosis is life altering, it does not and cannot affect each and every individual in the same way. As such, the means by which experience is determined are ultimately confined to the individual, although it can be said that key levels of similarity exist between cases. Gonzalez, A., Zvolensky, M. J., Parent, J., Grover, K. W., & Hickey, M. (2012). HIV Symptom Distress and Anxiety Sensitivity in Relation to Panic, Social Anxiety, and Depression Symptoms Among HIV-Positive Adults. AIDS Patient Care & Stds, 26(3), 156-164. doi:10.1089/apc.2011.0309 This particular discussion centers upon the means by which the links of anxiety and symptom distress exhibit themselves within the HIV/AIDs patient as an understanding of the disease is integrated with. As such, this particular article allows for a clear and distinctive link to be drawn between a physiological disease and the psycho-physiological condition of depression. By measuring and categorizing the impacts that depression has on the overall outlook and longevity of life for the patient, the researchers are able to draw a level of inference concerning the total impact that depression and anxiety has with regards to the prognosis of HIV/AIDs. Reis, R., Haas, V., dos Santos, C., Teles, S., Galvao, M., & Gir, E. (2011). Symptoms of depression and quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS. Revista Latino-Americana De Enfermagem (RLAE), 19(4), 874-881. Whereas it may seem convenient to merely focus upon the means by which depression impacts on the health and vitality of a patient suffering from HIV/AIDs, this particular article takes the unit of analysis down a step further and discusses how HIV/AIDs ultimately impacts on the quality of life, which in turn causes a degree of depression in the individual. Such a revelation is useful due to the fact that the prior discussions which have been engaged in this particular field have only focused upon a clear and definitive link between depression and the existence of HIV/AIDs in an individual, completely unaware or unperturbed whether or not any middle steps were to be made in determining this level of overall depression. Rizwan, I., & Irshad, E. (2012). Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Depression among Patients Suffering from HIV/AIDS. Dialogue (1819-6462), 7(4), 393-414. Taking the level of psychological introspection even a bit further, this particular article discusses the means by which individuals suffering from HIV/AIDs are invariably more prone not only to depression but also to extreme cases of anxiety attacks and possible exposure to PTSD as a result of the way in which they learned of their diagnosis. This level of analysis brings the situation to a deeply personal approach due to the fact that the experiential factors are the driving force in determining how the individual will live with the knowledge of his/her disease for the rest of his/her lives. Assignment 4 Although it is doubtless that ethics makes up a vital role in the performance of any research, this can especially be said to be true if the research is concentric on individuals or human relations research. The fact of the matter is that humans have an ethical responsibility before one another, and this must be preserved both in face-to-face relations and the means by which specialists seek to draw inference with regards to the actions, motivations, relationships, and realities that define the societies in which we live. As such, one of the first determinants of ethical research which was discussed is the importance of building and maintaining trust with the test subjects. Ultimately, this serves as something of a dual function of the researcher. First, it is ethically beneficial to operate under such a level of trust within any type of research and second, the creation of such an environment helps the researcher to gain better and more actionable data than if such an environment of trust had not existed in the first place. A second ethical determinant is with regards to non-malfeasance. This is, of course, the belief and practice that regardless of the scope of the work, no harm will be done as a result of the information that is retained. This is helpful from another standpoint as well due to the fact that the test subjects are much more likely to give key information if they are aware of the fact that they will not be hurt or no one else will be hurt as a result of such information being generated. Finally, confidentiality represents the final determinant of ethics which will herein be discussed. Just as with the other values which have been mentioned, confidentiality promotes a greater level of integration with the test subject as it allows for him/her to be aware of the fact that regardless of what they say, their privacy will be respected and the results of the experiment/study will not bring embarrassment to them. Read More
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