Globalization in its earliest stages - Assignment Example

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Some scholars suggest that globalization began in the modern era while others view it as an event that has a long history. The latter have the perception that globalization has occurred in three vital…
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Globalization in its earliest stages
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s Early Globalization Currently, there are many ongoing debatesabout the history of globalization. Some scholars suggest that globalization began in the modern era while others view it as an event that has a long history. The latter have the perception that globalization has occurred in three vital stages or periods: the pre-modern, modern and post-modern. During the pre-modern period, globalization was in its earliest stages, and affected many cultures globally. As a result, this paper seeks to describe globalization in its earliest stages. It seeks to do so by discussing the Mongols, the European engagement with the Americas, the relevance of the sack of Constantinople and Aztecs, the link between trade, culture, contact and conquest and the link between Marco and Columbus.
The Mongols is an ethno-linguistic group found in Northern and Central Asia that was conquered in the thirteenth century. This conquest is regarded as one of the deadliest conflicts in the history of humanity. It led to the creation of the Mongols Empire that covered the larger part of Eastern Europe and Asia, and impacted many societies globally. For example, the trade routes and exchange of new technologies, ideas and goods affected the way societies lived. The fear of Mongol conflict changed the manner the society lived. 
Moreover, the information and ideas exchanged during the Mongol invasion was instrumental in the enlightenment and advancement of numerous societies. Gunn suggests that the Mongolian invasions of Eurasia enabled globalization to spread through the peoples thus providing the last period of cultural exchange before the modern period (8). Early civilizations witnessed as a result of this conquest included the inception of calendar making, observational astronomy, higher skilled mathematics, use of bronze cannon and coal mining. Without globalization, these ideas may never have come easily to Europeans.  As a result, the Mongols’ conquest was a significant contribution to early globalization.
The Sack of Constantinople in 1204 destroyed sections of the Byzantine Empire headquarters as the city was conquered by Venetian and Western European Crusaders. This conquest led to the introduction of new cultures, technology and ideas which contributed to globalization of societies. The Aztec Empire, on the other hand, located in North America; modern-day southern Mexico, was well-known for being religiously united in every boundary of the empire (9). However, it was conquered in 1520 by Cortez thus resulting in the exchange of religions between the Spanish and the Aztec religions. This led to the transformation of the different cultures and religions as the different groups interacted.
The pre-modern globalization era was also characterized by the rise of European empires. This led to discoveries that facilitated the engagement between Europeans, Americans and Africans. They engaged in substantial biologic, cultural and material exchange with the “New World.” In addition, they engaged in the exchange of products such as timber and gold (16). Trade led to the exchange of ideas and technologies that transformed these societies during the industrial revolution.
Globalization continued with the colonization of the Americas by the Europeans. This initiated the Columbian Exchange and exchange of cultures between the Western and Eastern hemispheres. The Columbian exchange was a significant global event concerning culture, agriculture and history (19). The growth of agriculture led to the invention of new crops in America that contributed to civilization of other cultures.
Finally, the link between Marcos and Polo who made connections between America and Europe also contributed to globalization. They had the desire to explore the world and share knowledge and this led to major explorations. As a result of their link, Australia was discovered by the Europeans in the seventeenth century (32). Many other regions were discovered thus contributing to greater contacts between nations. This marked the beginning of a new period of globalization.
In conclusion, globalization began in the pre-modern era. The colonization and conquest of several societies was one of the major contributing factors of globalization. It led to the exchange of ideas, technology, religion, cultures and information that were instrumental in transforming different societies. As a result, the pre-modern era marked the commencement of the new era of globalization.
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Gunn, Geoffrey C. First globalization: the Eurasian exchange, 1500-1800. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2003. Print. Read More
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