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Chinese history: restoration through reform - Essay Example

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Experiences gained by China after defeat in the Sino-Japanese war between 1894 and 1995 and eminent scramble for concessions resulted into several reforms within Qing dynasty. Significant changes included military, political, and educational reforms. The changes remained…
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Chinese History: Restoration through Reform Experiences gained by China after defeat in the Sino-Japanese war between 1894and 1995 and eminent scramble for concessions resulted into several reforms within Qing dynasty. Significant changes included military, political, and educational reforms. The changes remained imperative in revolutionizing China’s international relations and economic development.
Educational Reforms
Reforms in the educational sector created by Qing dynasty included changing of traditional academies known as Shu-yuan into modern colleges. Qing dynasty leadership also turned other existing old schools into new schools with better learning materials. Qing also introduced changes in the national system of schools to assist in reorganizing the industry. Qing dynasty education adopted Japanese style of the educational system. The government also imported Japanese teachers and translated Japanese textbooks (Duiker and Spielvogel 623).
Qing dynasty also changed educational curricula by creating mixed curricula consisting of both traditional Chinese classical subjects and modern western subjects. Examination systems also involved the Eight-legged essay rather than the previous model. The government also sent its students in foreign countries for further studies. Returning students sat for state examinations and later recruited in Chinese government sectors. Some of the educational reforms that also included Hundred Days’ reforms failed, and international community described it as “a lapse to barbarism in that country”. Educational reforms aimed at teaching citizens’ patriotism and loyalty. It also promoted social literacy among citizens.
Political Reforms
Experiences from Japan victory between 1904 and 1905 enlightened Qing dynasty leadership of the importance of constitutional and representative changes to help in unifying citizens and the government. Changes in constitutional and representative rule would also create Confucian ideals. Confucian ideals remained indispensable in strengthening the relations between beliefs of the people and regime. It was also imperative to have a constitution as all the existing European great powers possessed working Constitutions. Most of the regime leaders and Citizens had also believed that constitutional law is essential following successful movements that advocated reforms in Japan.
Qing dynasty achieved constitutional and representative reforms through creation of local self-governments. Dynasty sent official government missions who went to countries with established legal systems to study their how the foreign political laws operate. After return of the missions, which happened in 1907, the regime created constitutional government commission. Afterwards, in 1908 Qing court announced immediate establishment of local self-governments. Local self-governments resulted in the creation of provincial assemblies in 1909, the national assembly in 1910, and opening of parliament in 1917.
Military Reforms
Qing dynasty and members of its elites introduced significant changes in the military department of China republic after defeat by Japan between 1896 and 1901. The changes in the military defense resulted from efforts of Yuan Shih­ kai and Chang Chih-tung. Military reforms included the introduction of new local soldiers within the security system. Regional armies who created the reforms had their military forces remaining unchanged by the Allied forces. The resultant local troops remained under the influence of Chinese government.
Qing dynasty created improvements in military defense through the Manchu court. Manchu court centralized different local troops to form strong national army. Centralizing local soldiers would solve problems of political decentralization. Qing dynasty sent Manchu leaders to replace the existing Yuans Peiyang Armies commanders. Reforms also lead to replacement of Yuan himself as a commander-in-chief. The government also sent representatives to provincial armies to implement need changes. In restoring military spirits, Qing dynasty trained Manchu bannermen.
The military reforms aimed at placing China’s armed forces under complete subdue by Manchu. For instance, in 1903, Qing dynasty established a commission for army reorganization in Peking to act as a central agency of recruiting and training new army personnel. Emperor decreed that he was in full command of China’s navy and army. At the end of 1910, the six divisions of Beiyang army created by the new regime remained under the command of Army ministry. New military reforms resulted into vast effects within China defense, which included an increase in respect among military personnel and the outside community.
The aforementioned reforms modernized Qing dynasty and resulted into socio-economic developments. China military and political systems also gained strength after the reforms. Educational reforms also revolutionized scientific and technological research in China. The reforms contributed to the establishment of China with an international community.
Work Cited
Duiker, William, and Jackson, Spielvogel. World History. London: Cengage Learning, 2008. Print. Read More
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