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Canton system remained restrictive in its design and always confined foreigners to smaller commercial districts in Canton. Canton system prohibited direct contact between Chinese citizens and foreigners. Canton system functioned between 1622 and 1911 after initiation by Qing dynasty (McCannon 223). Qing dynasty established the system at Canton port to assist in dealing with foreigners who arrived in China for trade. Ming courts made initial contacts with Portuguese, as the first Europeans to arrive in China by sea for trade at Canton between 1514 and 1517. Ming court expelled the foreigners and broke off relations. Ming dynasty accused Portuguese of crimes such as thievery and cannibalism.
Canton system significantly constrained activities off incoming merchants. It confined foreign merchants in factories near banks of Pearl River. Canton system prohibited the foreigners from learning Chinese language. The system also prevented foreign women from visiting Chinese factories. While in Canton, immigrants remained restricted from constructing permanent residence. Canton system only allowed foreigners to camp at Canton factories during shipping season after which the system forced immigrants to move to Macao in offseason.
Canton system assigned foreigners to Coons that served as a monopolistic guild of Hong merchants. Hong merchants acted as government’s agents and controlled behaviors of foreigners in Canton. Canton system, therefore, only granted foreigners direct contact with officially designated Chinese hong or firms.
European community considered Chinese as individuals who remained resistant to change. European community assumed that Chinese believed in their cultural practices and could not accommodate other cultures views. Europeans con the contrary, viewed themselves as open-minded and accommodative of other cultures. Europeans used their perceived knowledge in controlling international trade and free
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The evaluation shows that all the thinkers make strong beliefs that there should be one single monarchy in the country instead of these warring states. The prevailing war between the states and thus tensions arises from it would be stopped with one single ruler.
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