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In the early prehistoric settlements, at Catal Huyuk in Anatolia, Turkey, buildings were arranged in a “cellular organization.” This was basically a square shaped dwelling and a flat roof. The square shaped dwellings were accessed from the ‘roof-street’ which was made…
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Insert Architecture History Week 08/26 and 08/28 Lecture: Introduction In the early prehistoric settlements, atCatal Huyuk in Anatolia, Turkey, buildings were arranged in a “cellular organization.” This was basically a square shaped dwelling and a flat roof. The square shaped dwellings were accessed from the ‘roof-street’ which was made from mud-brick and half-timber and the rooftops served as public circulation. The vertical compilation of the structures served as a natural defense: it barred the outside world from the inside society.
In Mesopotamia (present day Iraq), the massive temples were made of sun dried bricks which were draped with bitumen to protect from weather.
In Egypt, the pyramids of Giza were constructed with granite and limestone. These acted as monuments to the dead. Inside was a hollow excavated basement that was curved into the bedrock to make underground chambers. These pyramids are considered as one of the ancient wonders of the world.
The Temple of Queen Hatshepsut, Del-El-Bahari, Egypt was a mortuary temple dedicated to the sun god Amon. Its architecture comprised of three hypostyle halls with square unornamented columns. The roofs comprised of three terraces connected by ramps. Some sections of the temple were built into the hillside  part of the terrain.
Knossos Crete palace, in Greece was the center of Minoan Civilization. It was destroyed and rebuilt by various people during its life’s span (1700 - 1400 BCE). It contained frescoes on the walls. It had a labyrinth layout organized around a central courtyard and three stories. It was constructed with ashlar masonry and had minoan columns with a torus capital, large abacus and reverse entasis.
The Theater of Epidaurus in Peloponnese, Greece was built during the Hellenistic period. It had two distinct sections, 34 rows for the rulers and priests and 21 rows for citizens. It was built in the landscape, thus, the architecture had to follow the ground plane, instead of vice-versa. It was originally built to seat 5,000 people, but in the 2nd Century BCE, its seating capacity was increased to 14,000.
The Temple of Fortuna Virilis in Rome, Italy, is an iconic temple with its columns dedicated to Hercules. Its cella wall was constructed from concrete instead of marble blocks. Other materials that were used in its construction included travertine, tufa stone and stucco surfacing.
Week 2: 09/02 and 09/04
Lecture: Early Renaissance (1418-1495)
During the Early Renaissance, one of the architectural sites to see was the Cathedral Dome. It was built by Brunelleschi and begun in the 1420’s and completed in 1436.
The other buildings that were under Brunelleschi’s name were the Hospital of the Innocents – 1419, Basilica di San Lorenzo – 1421, the Pazzi Chapel (1430 – 1433), and the S. Maria degli Angeli (1434 – 7). All his buildings had a distinct look and looked different from what others had done in the past.
The other architectural structure to be built during this Early Renaissance era was the Colosseum (Flavin’s Amphitheatre) in Rome.
Week 3: 09/09 and 09/11
Lecture: High Renaissance and Mannerism 1498-1588
During the High Renaissance era, the architecture Michelozzo Bartolomeo built the Palazzo Medici in Italy. It contained a
Square plan with central courtyard
Ground floor opening to the street for the Medici Banking business
Rooms arranged en suit with no continuous corridor
Second floor family room
Its floor elevation was arranged in three tiers, with heavy rustication and chamfered joint at the base. Its Romanesque windows with circular heads were symmetrical.
Later on (1404 – 1472), an architect by the name Leon Battista Alberti sort to defy social order through his art. He decided to beautify buildings through art. His initial and most notable architectural paintings were
Masaccio, 1401 – 1428, Santa Maria del Carmine, Fresco: Cappella Brancacci, 1427, Florence, Italy – general view of frescoes stories from the life of St. Peter, Adam and Eve.
Masaccio, 1401 – 1428, S. Maria Novella, Fresco: The Holy Trinity, 1427, Florence, Italy.
Leone Battista Alberti geometrical construction of the white panels and green marbles on Santa Maria Novella was incredible. He adapted classical vocabulary for the façade of existing church with Basilica cross section, which was a problem for the Renaissance architects.
Work Cited
Salvan, George S. Architectural Character & the History of Architecture. Manila: Goodwill Trading Co, 2005. Print. Read More
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