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THE GREATER MIDDLE EAST - Essay Example

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For that reason, the establishment of Zionism aims at returning Jews to their homeland. As an organized movement, it is developed in 1897 by Theodor Herzl…
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THE GREATER MIDDLE EAST
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The Great Middle East The Great Middle East Zionist ideology holds that all Jews are a nation just like any other and therefore should occupy a single homeland. For that reason, the establishment of Zionism aims at returning Jews to their homeland. As an organized movement, it is developed in 1897 by Theodor Herzl. However, between 1870 and 1897 Hovevei Zion creates 20 Jewish settlements in Palestine. After the Holocaust, the Zionism movement focuses on creation of Israel and establishment of a Jewish state. In addition, the movement continues to support the Israelite, especially through the “28th Zionist congress in Jerusalem in 1968.” It also plays a role in transforming Israel into a western state during World War I and II (Goldschmidt & Davidson, 2013).
Thesis statement:
Because of Zionism movement, Israel is transformed into western state through Zionist Congress such as the 28th Zionist Congress in Jerusalem in 1968.
Gartner (1996) argues that, the ideology of Jews returning to their homeland is evident from biblical precedents where Moses leads the exodus of Israelite from Egypt to their promised homeland. In addition, the immigration of Israelite comes again in 641 BCE when Babylonians conquer Judea. However, in 1897 Theodor Herzl establishes the Zionist movement with the aim of creating a Jewish state. This state provides an opportunity for Jews to escape from anti-Semitism and join the family of nations. The world Zionist organizations are established and together with Birnbaum, there is establishment of Zionist congress to increase the effect of Zionism.
Gottheil (1899) argues that, the 28th Zionist Congress of 1968 in Jerusalem adopts 5 principles as aims of the contemporary Zionism. These principles include: protecting the Jewish rights everywhere; returning the Jewish people into historic homeland; preserving the Jewish identity through fostering Hebrew, Jewish and Zionist education; strengthening the state of Israel; and centralizing and unifying the Jewish people.
According to Goldschmidt & Davidson (2013), after Herzl’s death Zionism separates with Orthodox Judaism and shifts to Communism. This is as a result of cultural and language diversity which makes orthodox religious organizations opposes the Zionism. In addition, this opposition is influenced by Zionism’s secularism and the fact that Jewish rule will only be re-established in Israel by Messiah. However, after the Jewish separates with the Judaism they immigrate to Palestine to form a communism. The Jewish citizens are led by Zionist leader Jabotinsky and form a new revival for the Hebrew language. The Jewish organizations and migrants begin making vast land purchases. For instance, they purchase malarial swamps and drain them to create fertile lands. However, a socialist commune acquires some land around the Sea of Galille and establishes the first Kibbutz In 1911.
In 1914, The Zionist Movement enters into the period of World War I. However, since the secular Louis Brandeis, often referred to as “people’s lawyers” has been involved in Zionism in 1912, the movement gains a significant support. During the 1917, “the American Provisional Executive Committee for General Zionist Affairs” chaired by Brandeis had increased the membership of American Zionist by 200,000. As a result, it becomes the financial supporter of the world Zionist movement. In addition, the Zionism also obtains support from the Germany since its offices are led by Warburg, a citizen from Germany. The support from both the U.S and Germany makes it possible for the Zionism to develop Israel as a western state. In 1939 during the World War II the Zionist movement had a total of 1040540 members across 61 countries. At this time Jewish population amounts to 18 million hence increasing the popularity of the Zionism movement. In 1939 elections were made for the ratification of Zionist congress in Geneva.
In conclusion, the establishment of Zionism movement aims at returning Jews to their homeland. The movement is developed by Theodor Herzl and supports the development of Jewish State through congress such as the “28th Zionist congress in Jerusalem in 1968.” Furthermore, this Zionist congress has 5 principles that help in transforming Israel as a western state.
References
Gartner, L.P. (1996). The Zionist Ideology by Gideon Shimoni. The Jewish Quarterly Review New Series,86 (3) 44-445.
Goldschmidt, A., & Davidson, L. (2013). A Concise Histrory of the middle East. Philadelphia, P.A: Westview Press.
Gottheil, R. (1899). The Zionist Movement. The North American Review, 169, (513) 227-236. Read More
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