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Generally, the first crusades were held during the political and social transitions in the 11th century in Europe. This involved…
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History assignment The First Crusades The first crusades were caused by the capturing of Jerusalem in 1076 bythe Muslims and this was an attempt to recapture Jerusalem by the Christians. Generally, the first crusades were held during the political and social transitions in the 11th century in Europe. This involved the rise of a reform movement within the papacy, the political and religious confrontation of Christianity and Islam in Europe and the Middle East (Shepkaru 2). The first crusades were compelled by the happenings in the religious and political settings.
The Beginning of the First Crusades
In 1094, the Byzantine Emperor got to the conclusion that the Byzantium was too weak to take its lost territories by itself and appealed to the Christian states of Western Europe for help. The assistance and the process of gathering the states to deploy the call to help the Byzantine Emperor by the Christians and other Christian stares was the beginning of the crusades. The report by the Byzantine to the Pope requesting the aid to bring back the lost territories revealed to the Pope that the Orthodox Church and the Eastern Empire were weak. he thought that if he sent assistance he could possibly reunite the churches under his authority. The process of preaching the peace and the need for reunion through France was through the crusades (Shepkaru 4).
After the launch of crusade by Pope Urban, the armies left and captured Jerusalem and the Muslims were displaced. They captured the lands around Jerusalem. They curved the lands and made small kingdoms for themselves and this just lasted for a while. Most of the European leaders got strong grid and gained influence of the land to form stable governments. Christians re-founded the humanity of Jesus as the veneration of the artifact became more popular: however, some of the Christians lost their properties, lives and loved ones (Shepkaru 14).
Reformations in the religious sectors were caused by the corruption of the church. The Catholic Church involved itself through the leaders to corruption by selling the indulgences and nepotism. The questioning of the church traditions by the Renaissance Humanism, which challenged the pope over the virtues of salvation and his take on the same also led to reformation of Christianity. The influence of the religious reformers who questioned and revoked the sacraments while focused on the purpose of communicating with God also gave the proof that more were hidden in the church and compelled people to reform from the Catholic Church (Perkins 3).
The Impact of Reformation
The spread of the ideas of the reformers were through the book medium and this linked to selling of more books and other written documents. The growth in the printing press due to the increased sales of books of philosophy, this also led to the economic growth in the European economy. The movable types of the printing press produced the cheap books that easily affordable and the press increased its operations with high sales. The travel books, almanacs, poetry and chivalry romances were produced in the printing press and the writing of music began. All these were demanded to be translated into other languages. This demanded for more books boosting the economy (Ryrie 34).
How the Catholic Church Countered Reformation
The Catholic Church countered reformation by founding seminaries for proper training of priests in the spiritual life and the traditions of the church through theology. The church also reformed the religious life by sticking back to the orders of the spiritual foundation. New spiritual movements were also formed which focused on the dedication to the church and also with the personal relation with Jesus. The Catholic Church also involved the political activities to fight and refute the reputation that was torn by the Reformers (Ryrie 34).
Works Cited:
Perkins, Leeman L. "Music And The Renaissance: Renaissance, Reformation And Counter-Reformation. (Book Review)." Renaissance Quarterly 1 (2013): Academic OneFile. Web. 22 Nov. 2013.
Ryrie, Alec. Being Protestant In Reformation Britain. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 2013. Discovery eBooks. Web. 22 Nov. 2013.
Shepkaru, Shmuel. "The Preaching Of The First Crusade And The Persecutions Of The Jews." Medieval Encounters 1 (2012): 93. Read More
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