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1984 George Orwell - Essay Example

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He is a journalist from England. He is committed to democratic socialism, and against totalitarianism. He is known for his wit, humor and satire. The entire humankind is his…
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Essay, History and Political Science Topic: 1984George Orwell
1. What was the purpose behind the writing of the novel? Explain who the author was and who the audience is.
The author of the novel 1984 is Eric Arthur Blair (1903-1950) known by his pen name George Orwell. He is a journalist from England. He is committed to democratic socialism, and against totalitarianism. He is known for his wit, humor and satire. The entire humankind is his audience and the purpose behind this novel is to make the people aware what a tragedy it is to live under totalitarian regimes.
2. How does the society I this dystopian world of Oceania work?
The dystopian world of Oceania is a terror-ridden society, where "War is Peace; Freedom is Slavery; Ignorance is Strength" (Orwell n.d.). Unrealistic and negative messages are its hallmarks. All privacy of the people is done away with. An individual cannot express, he is part of the collective conformity. Each citizen is required to be a loyal follower of the government. Physical and emotional tortures are the accepted procedures to achieve the reformation goals. The supreme leader eliminates the fundamental rights and freedom of expression of the citizens. They are like the dumb, driven cattle. Since each movement is monitored, people are afraid to exhibit even emotions. Human nature is suppressed. Youth is taught to rebel against the parents. "It was almost normal for people over thirty to be frightened of their own children." (Orwell n. d.) They are afraid of their shadows!
3. Explain the Logic behind Newspeak?
Newspeak relates to domination of the thought process where in the State will command it in totality, with no scope for the opinion of others. It will remove all shades of meanings from the language that which is not conducive to the philosophy of the state. Thus, the vocabulary gets reduced every year and the words like rebellion, freedom etc., will vanish from the dictionary of the totalitarian state. The processes of destruction of words begin with the introduction and use of Newspeak to give a blow to logical thinking with a deliberate scheme to oppress the freedom-loving speakers. Its negative connotation is its ‘beauty.’
4. How is technology utilized to control people?
The government’s main aim is to know what is going on in the minds of the people, and telescreens are installed to watch their moves. News about false hopes is broadcasted. The tools like newspaper, print media and speakers give information, not truth, and what is convenient from the government point of view. Psychological principles are used to brainwash the people and to secure their commitment to the philosophy of the party. For example, they apply electrical shocks to subdue and weaken the spirit of Winston. The constant supervision makes the citizens the virtual prisoners in their daily lives in Oceania. Orwell writes about one such warning board, “BIG BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU, the caption beneath it ran.”(Orwell, n. p.) Scientific research and progress will only fulfill the goals set out by the party. Artificial insemination and methods for psychological manipulation are the tools to exercise control over the citizens. Technological tools create a frightening environment for the citizens. History is distorted and re-written to suit the needs of the party.
5. Explain the relationship between OBrien and Winston
O’Brien wants to implant the communist party philosophy of dictatorship in the mind of Winston who is the member of the outer party. Winston loves freedom, a trait of the proletariat, and he questions and argues. O’Brien perceives this as the threat to the party and thinks that it is his duty to save the party to which he is deeply committed. O’Brien is a total conformist, will not like any deviation from the party line, he is not personally against Winston, but is duty-bound to carry out the directives of the party. The theme of government mind control is revealed through the antagonist O’Brien, who is a member of the surveillance on Winston Smith by the thought police. Apparently they look like friends, and Orwell writes about his personality, “But at any rate he had the appearance of being a person that you could talk to if somehow you could cheat the telescreen and get him alone.”(Orwell n. p.) but O’Brien is committed to party philosophy and on that consideration, the beauty of the friendship is confronted to duty towards the communist philosophy.

Works Cited
Orwell, George. 1984. n.d. Read More
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