American constitution - Assignment Example

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It also encompasses the method of power by the ruling entity (Jowett 6). Modern politics however delves on the relation of the people and the discourse and relationship…
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Full Define politics and discuss 4 roles of government (enforce and create laws, provide social infrastructure, protects human rights, provide public safety).
The term politics generally relates to the event of governing and running the affairs of a particular state. It also encompasses the method of power by the ruling entity (Jowett 6). Modern politics however delves on the relation of the people and the discourse and relationship it has over its governing body.
The responsibilities of the government are critical to the success and well-being of the population and state wherein it governs. Firstly, it is in charge of enforcing and creating laws for the benefit and protection of its citizens. This is necessary to preserve and promote a harmonious society wherein peace, safety, and protection of its constituents are safeguarded. Secondly, it should provide social infrastructure wherein the citizens can interact well and establish connections and ties with one another. Thirdly, it is tasked in protecting human rights and upholding and ensuring that everyone is treated fairly and accorded with the things that are of the essence to being human. Citizens should be safeguarded against violations of human rights. And lastly, it is the government’s role to provide public safety. In relation with its other roles, this dictates that it should protect the state from both internal and external threats, be it in whatever nature such as, but not limited to, political, military, health, etc.
2.Define democracy and discuss 5 bases of democracy(five bases to use are, self-government john locke-2nd treaties on government, social contract, majority rule, minority rights, limited government, democratic institution, free election, free expression of ideas ).
In the modern era of politics, democracy as a form of government has risen as the most widely practiced form of government. The word can be literally translated to mean as the Government of the People/Majority (Becker and Raveloson 4). It is easily distinguishable from other forms of government such as monarchy, aristocracy, and dictatorship simply because the governing body comes from the people themselves. Leaders of such government and elected and empowered by the people in the rationale of them serving the common interest of its citizens.
3. Discuss 5 types of powers (Reward-ability to provide what others don’t have, Coercive-ability to punish, Authority-based on titles and position, Expert-based on knowledge, Referant-based on charisma or respect.
The reward-ability power is anchored in the ability of the authoritative entity to grant and motivate its constituents by its desires and undesirables. This regards the work of its subordinates in a positive manner by encouraging them to perform better with the promise of improved status or condition in exchange for such (Hinkin 563).
The coercive ability type of power is derived from the concept of someone being forced to perform something. It is irrelevant whether the person performing the task is of agreement or not to what he is to do. The main goal of a coercive power is the compliance of the coercer’s bidding (561).
Authority based power is also referred as “Legitimate Power”. This dictates that one follows a certain chain of command because he is obliged by the notion and perception of responsibility. This is very commonly observed because people usually observe the ones in power simply because they are in such a position of leadership and superiority over them (565).
Expert power comes from the reasoning that certain people have specialized knowledge regarding certain fields and that gives them a sense of credence and authority over such field. Subordinates, which have little to none and limited knowledge over such are convinced that they should hand over authority to someone who knows more about it.
Referent based power is based on the charisma and personal acceptance or approval of the subordinates for its leader. The person in power is usually seen as a visage worth emulating and following. This type of power elevates the leader into an idol-like status wherein the admiration and charm of him captivates his followers to do his bidding (567).
4. Describe the 4 methods of budgeting (Incremental budgeting, Zero based budgeting, Project budgeting, Program budgeting).
Incremental budgeting is a method which uses the previous period’s budget projections or its actual performance as a basis for the next period’s budget. This can lead to not being a very cost effective method because it promotes a culture of “spend it or lose it” since the budget of the previous term is progressive and it does not even consider circumstantial changes, although this method is merited for its simplicity and gradual shift in change as compared to the other methods. Meanwhile, zero based budgeting is the opposite of the traditional incremental budgeting, wherein no reference is made to the previous budget period. The budget is evaluated thoroughly per item that needs funding. (Accounting for Managers 423)
Project budgeting is the prediction of the associated costs of a certain project. This includes, but not limited to, labor and materials. This type of budget is often detailed down to specific tasks or milestones of the project. Program budgeting on the other hand is also contrary to the conventional type of budgeting in the way that it details the costs of each and every activity or program that needs to be carried out by the budget.

Works Cited
Becker, Paula and Jean-Aime A. Raveloson. “What is Democracy”. (2008) Translated by Andriakamelo Rarivoarisoa Alice. Print
Hinkin, T.R. and Schriesheim, C.A. “Development and application of new scales to measure the bases of social powers.” Journal of Applied Psychology. (1989). 561-567. Print
Jowett, Benjamin. “Politics Aristotle”. (1999). Batoche Books, Kitchener. Print Read More
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