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Summarize: 'of the state of nature' in chapter II by John Locke - Book Report/Review Example

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He argues that threats should not be used against each other because they create a state of war. Those who feel threatened have the power to destroy those who may be doing…
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Summarize: of the state of nature in chapter II by John Locke
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Second Treatise of Government and a Letter Concerning Toleration by John Locke: A Summary of Chapters III and IV Second Treatise of Government Second Treatise of Government and a Letter Concerning Toleration by John Locke: A Summary of Chapters III and IV
Chapter III: State of War
In this chapter, Locke (2002) indicates that self preservation is significant in the day-to-day activities. He argues that threats should not be used against each other because they create a state of war. Those who feel threatened have the power to destroy those who may be doing so to them. According to Locke, people who take control of others can easily make them do things that they may not have done. This indicates that such people have the influence to make their subjects behave contrary to their will.
Locke further asserts that a state of war exists when a thief steals someone’s property. This is because when this happens, the thief has violated one’s right of possession and is allowed to die. Such deaths are lawful since they are aimed at stopping violations of others’ rights. He goes further to indicate that a state of nature is when human beings live without authority or government. In such cases, where one takes advantage to take way other people’s property, a state of war is declared. This is because the one who is violated lacks the office that would administer justice. Therefore, a state of war allows him to defend himself against the aggressor. There are cases in society when a judge and those in authority are present but the rule of law has been neglected. This, according to the author, will create a state of war since people will lack confidence in the judicial systems.
Chapter IV: Slavery
The author, in this chapter, indicates that man is free from another man’s control. He can only be dominated out of his own will. Such a man cannot allow the law to go beyond all that he is sure of with authority. Authority enhances the rule of common law that works for subjects regardless of their status in society. Those who do not violate the law enjoy their autonomy and freedom. Slavery is defined as a state of war between the powerful and the powerless. Human beings cannot give more than they have, which extends to his life. One who has committed a crime feels that he owes his life to the one he wronged. This makes him enslaved, and as a result, he may end up committing suicide. Locke indicates that slavery and state of war can be controlled when the conqueror applies a limited rule, which may make the conquered obey.
Reference
Locke, J. (2002). The Second Treatise of Government and a Letter Concerning Toleration. New York: NY: Courier Dover Publications. Read More
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