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Presidential Reconstruction is a short period of presidency from 1863 to 1866 of both Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson. In an attempt to unify the nation, political activity of the presidents was strongly opposed by the Radical Republicans. Even though Johnson was in favor of anti-slavery politics, he vetoed the punitive legislation against southern planters. Officially he was against slavery and, at the same time, in reality was in favor of rich plantation owners of the South. And, already in 1866 the Radical Republicans gained power and begun Congressional Reconstruction. Having analyzed politics in Washington, D.C., it should be noted that emancipation proclamation as well as anti-slavery laws were not an easy decisions to take, because it was people’s wealth, country’s economy, political power and many others important issues which were put at stake.
Furthermore, emancipation did not go smoothly and painlessly. The rich plantation owners were neither ready, nor willing to let their free workforce go. And war, which began, was “the midwife of revolution” (Foner 2). As the author has noted, the proclamation was just official document in support of the revolutionary movement which had begun much earlier. Despite all the difficulties and controversies, slavery finally ended while Confederacy was defeated. The meaning of the word ‘freedom’ began to gain its new shade for Americans regaining its true position in society purified by Civil War events. Only by the end of 1870s the Reconstruction did provide freed slaves with some rights under the law which had been signed much earlier. Yet, the years of Reconstruction can be considered as a new starting point of new and right democracy, which has been destined to fight its way through until present days.
Not only was Reconstruction one of the most
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His book is broken into chapters concerning one element of the reconstruction phase, such as the Train industry, or how the economy was influenced. Ayers’ writing does not just refer to the train industry and what part it played in the reconstruction. He also speaks to what was going on in the daily life of southern citizens and how important the elections were.
Having lost the war, the federal government in 1868 declared the congressional program of “reconstruction” in all Southern States, including Florida, in the aftermath of the civil war. In this period of reconstruction in Florida, the Republicans, who were in charge of office then introduced different changes in legislation in an attempt to ensure better living and working conditions for the African-Americans.
The Civil War would have its most important effect on the lives of millions of African American slaves, as a large proportion of them would be decreed 'free' toward the end of the war. Having achieved this concession from their white masters, African Americans would rejoice their newly won liberties and rights in the years following the war – also referred by historians as the period of Reconstruction.
It began with President Lincoln’s affirmative actions for a race-blind, equal and reunited America. While Lincoln took a more lenient and tolerant course to end slavery and reuniting the South, the Radical Republicans opposed it on the ground that Lincoln reconstruction plan had freed the slaves without paying much attention to establishing their socio-political, economic and other rights.
These voters would then have the ability to elect new representatives and form a government. Under this deal, everyone in the South, with the exception of high-ranking military officials, would receive pardons for their crimes. Lincoln promised these people private property rights, although they could not use slaves on this property.
Further aggravating the situation was the fact that the wounds of defeat were still fresh in the collective psyche of White Southerners and these wounds were deepened with the rising political and economic power of their Northern conquerors (referred to as carpetbaggers) as well as their former slaves.
However, complete guaranteed freedom during then was far from its realization due to key groups and influential icons in the government who had conflicting intentions. Hence, prompting Dubois term the attainment of equality during then as a “splendid failure” because an individual’s recognition or mode of treatment assumed racial lines.
implications of the unsuccessful war with all the limitation in the social standards and quick discouragement and hatred was a situation that would make it hard under any criteria to come up with new civilization and new government. Additionally, the 4 million freemen and the
essay will focus on the history of the reconstruction of America after the civil war that began in 1863 with the emancipation clause by President Abraham Lincoln.
It was not easy for the leaders to decide whether or not to punish the South for the Civil war. It was even harder
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