The Rise and Fall of Civilizations - Essay Example

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It is defined as decentralized organization that comes up because of central authority failure to perform its functions, prevent the emergence of local powers and complexity of political, social, and…
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The Rise and Fall of Civilizations
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Europe The raise of Feudalism Feudalism is a concept discovered in sixteen century by ly lawyers. It is defined as decentralized organization that comes up because of central authority failure to perform its functions, prevent the emergence of local powers and complexity of political, social, and economic society, which has lead to the emergency of modern state.
Feudalism influenced European leaders to adopt new and effective institutions, moneyless economy, inadequate infrastructures for transport and communication, and an inefficient government. The Feudal agreement led to conflict that resulted to absorb of lesser lords by the powerful local lord. The agreement involved one party turning his lands to the other in order to receive something of value in exchange of services. The two parties made promises and honor to each other after agreeing upon a certain contract. They would therefore exchange gifts, the party of the second part would relief payment to the party of the first part where he in turn gives the sword to show honor.
The author suggests that the bond established between two parties, the lord and the vassal, as a result of their agreements built by promises and honor, was a powerful way of holding off raiders and establishing peace. This bond was therefore been used as an organization by western Europeans, Mafia and MacDonald’s since it was not primitive and inefficient system.
There was no relationship between the gated community and the private security because individual’s self-interest would always affect the community by misuse of power in possession of properties. The feudal system is efficient in that it reviews the complexity of social, political, and economic issues and the state of the government that facilitates the emergence of modern state through invention of new ways of implementing the government, and handling these social, political, and economic complexities.
The Constantine’s famous vision was to conquer in the sign of the Christ in spite the large number of his enemy, so he confidently marched towards his destiny. This vision proofed Constantine’s success by henceforth toleration of the Christian worship throughout the empire, treating his enemies with greatest magnanimity and ensured that no bloody executions preceded he success of the Milvian Bridge. However, Constantine ensured that his warriors carried Christ’s monogram on every shield as a sign of showing respect and honor for the favor of God towards the success of their battle.
Constantine worshiped Christianity because he grew up in a background that believed in Christianity. His hometown was established with a firm Christian foundation and that is why he was chosen as an empire to lead his people. However, he also worshiped the sun, which was one of the varied guises of monotheism; a concept where the world was fully ripped from. He is syncretistic in that he had the ability to gather few of his warriors and influence them to march with confidence towards their enemies without hesitation. He rightfully claimed the title of Christianity in many areas that he conquered and its foundation was made strong by his success.
Emperor considers himself as faithful and held in measures to the adoration of the sun uniting all of their subjects in worshiping of one sun god who associate in him as father-god of the Christians; thus the empire is considered to be anew unity of religion. Constantine respected and adorned Christian churches gloriously giving it maximum power because he believed in God. His conquest was under the mercies of God and he used to consult the church councils like priest, bishops, and prophets to interpret the complex situation.
Constantine was generous to every person because it was his vision to fight for his people and free them from the yoke of absolutism and restore them the splendor and glory, he also loved children where he prohibited the abduction of girls and acknowledged the right of parents to trade their children in slavery. However, Constantine was seized with an ailment and died in May, 337, as a strong Christian respecting and supporting the roles of the church; he longed to lead a pagan life and supported his children as Christians.
The Ancient Record of the Tang Dynasty portrays a landmark official visit to china by an ambassador from Arabia in seventh century. Saad ibn Abi Waqqas, a companion of Prophet Muhammad, led the representative which brought Islam’s belief system to china. Muslims therefore nourished China’s economy by establishing import and export business during Sung Dynasty. The Muslim businessmen, traders and tourists facilitated these trade activities and led to establishment of offices of Director General of Shipping operated by Muslims.
As years went by, Muslims became fully incorporated into Han society especially through marriage. Names changed among Chinese Muslim people where if a Muslim married Han women, their children obtained the name of the mother while others took the Chinese surnames. However, Muslim was capable of maintaining a separate, unfamiliar status, which contained its own custom, traditions, and languages and was never fully incorporated into the Han society. Their mode of dressing and dietary were constantly maintained.
Kublai Khan’s brother, the emperor Mongke worked with Genghis’ third son, Ogodei to conquer Sung China with Kublai given the responsibility of full civil and military issues. This incited him in developing a government in China with the help of trustworthy Confucian advisers. Eventually he conquered China and turned into a first emperor of Mongol, which enabled him to rule the whole China. Kublai Khan imposed a nationalities policy, which divided China’s population into four categories. The first category was made up of Mongols that formed the military bastion and was in charge of taxation. The second was formed by foreign auxiliaries of Mongols, built-in for general Central Asia to furnish the higher officialdom together with its members. The fourth and the third classes were made of the large population from Han-jen the northern Chinese and Man-tzu the southern barbarians; this helped in determining state expenses.
He undertook a political theory called dual principle which represented the parity of power and the self-worth of church and state in government affairs. His parvenu nomadic power called Mongols, viewed China’s government as having a political incompetence that led to much of it rapid collapse. Mongols even came to power in china, due to their powerful force of arms and they were able to build foundations for brilliant civilization established by Sung Dynasty.
The Middle East
Abbasids had the ability to characterize themselves from the Umayyad by striking their secularism, moral personality and their administration as a whole. They also requested support from non-Arab Muslim called Malawi who remained separated from Arab’s kinship-based society and were the best second-class citizen inside Umayyad Empire. When Umayyads were conquered, Abu al-Abbas’ successor called Mansur moved their finances from Damascus to the city of Baghdad welcoming non- Arab Muslims to their supreme court. Once in power, Abbasids accepted Sunni Islam and disclaimed the knowledge of supporting Shi’s beliefs, which led to frequent conflicts. This followed a widespread of bloodshed and escape of many shi’a to Maghreb.
However, Mamluks were Turkish slaves used together with Slavs and Berbers to form an army loyal only to Addasids’ caliphate. This army was used by Al-Ma’mun and his successor brother, Al- Mu’tasim, to prevent further breakdown of the empire. It also created a border between the Caliphate and the people they declared to rule. The discussion recorded in the palace reviews the problems that resulted from Chamberlain’s misinterpretation of the agreement made between Abu Taghlib’s territory and al-Bakilani that al-bakilani had agreed to assent the terms of restoring the stronghold taken from him. This led to failure of producing the agreement in triplicate where the first copy was to remain with the Byzantine and was to be a ruling one, the second copy one to be in Aleppo referring to giving up the strongholds and the third granted in the capital.
The Arab envoy considers Byzantine position ridiculous because he was able to procure the authorities consent to assured terms, which involved restoring fortresses derived from the revolt. However, Byzantines could rather use his skills for controversy and making up fine stories other than tolerate fair settlement of issues.
Part 2
The three regions; Europe, Asia and the Middle East are centers of civilization that have succeeded to advance ever since their conquest. Their success have been influenced by the factor that they employed a number of factor such as feudalism, the Ancient Record of the Tang Dynasty and unique seizure respectively. A number of strategies are also used currently and they include military, religion, and politics respectively.
In the 9th and 10th centuries, Europe suffered an economic crisis and political instability due to ineffective central government. However, European leaders adopted feudalism to reorganize the ineffective Roman institutions and shift their power to new institutions, improve the economy, advance transportation and communication facilities. Feudalism also incited many European people to gather a number of armed and fighting men capable of becoming powerful enough to take over their decaying Empire in charge of the government. These groups formed feudal leaders that took over the responsibilities of economic security of their boundaries and directed on how resources were to be used.
Asia benefited from The Ancient Record of the Tang Dynasty, which made it possible for Arab people to visit China. Their adventure led to introduction of various activities of economic benefits. Many of the Muslim visitors were businesspersons who encouraged trade activities that became of great economic impact. They also influence religious activities by introducing their religion to China, which was highly respected for being fair, law-abiding and having a personal-discipline. However, the Middle East’s empire called Abbasid had the ability to conquer the Umayyad caliphs by use of his seized power where he assaulted their secularism, moral character and their government at large, he also continued to claim the power of authority using his Islamic religion.
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Clough, Shepherd. The Rise and Fall of Civilization. New York: Kindle Books, 1990. Print. Read More
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