Free

What factor was ultimately more responsible for the deaths in the late 19th century famines: El Nino or human choices - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
19th-century famines resulted from causal factors related to El Ninos and human choices are beyond question; both contributed to deaths and other forms of loss. The more difficult question is an identification of the primary or the predominant cause. …
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER98.3% of users find it useful
What factor was ultimately more responsible for the deaths in the late 19th century famines: El Nino or human choices
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
"What factor was ultimately more responsible for the deaths in the late 19th century famines: El Nino or human choices"

What Factor Was Ultimately More Responsible For The Deaths In The Late 19th Century Famines-El Nino or Human Choices That late 19th century faminesresulted from causal factors related to El Ninos and human choices is beyond question; to be sure, both contributed to deaths and other forms of loss. The more difficult question is an identification of the primary or the predominant cause. This essay will argue that human choices clearly exacerbated the losses, aggravated them as noted by Linden, and that El Ninos alone could never have caused such serious losses without poor and misguided human responses and policies. The human choices which so seriously aggravated these losses were inspired by a dogmatic adherence to popular notions related to free-market economics, to institutionalized tendencies towards corruption, and to an imperial arrogance which preempted more rationale responses to the El Ninos.
As an initial matter, though crop yields were down and though there was an agricultural depression caused by the failure of the monsoons, the British pursued an ideology which exacerbated the losses. As stated by Linden, the imperial British were deeply motivated by notions of Liberal Capitalism and Social Darwinism which inspired them to adopt what they deemed a more scientific response than a more humanistic response (2006: 195). In the Indian famine of 1877-1878, for example, the British continued to encourage grain exports to England, the made it illegal to make donations which might interfere with the setting of free market prices, and they instituted the Temple wage which guaranteed inadequate calories despite availability. As noted by Davis, the problems flowed not so much from the lack of food production as from food availability. This is the central consideration; after all, El Ninos affected food production whereas human choices and policies affected the subsequent food availability. It is, therefore, given the evidence provided, quite fair to argue that human choices both exacerbated the losses and were, in many ways, more responsible for the total losses suffered.
In addition, there were imperial tendencies towards corruption which contributed greatly to the losses. Where grain was available, for instance, there is evidence that British administrators ordered market reallocations in order to fetch the highest possible prices for the grain. In effect, grain was being diverted in times of famine in order to enrich speculators. In addition, there was a famine fund and a famine fund created in order to moderate the effects of El Ninos; however, in the 1899-1900 famines it was established that the British diverted large portions of the famine funds for a war in Afghanistan. In short, both available grain and available funds for diverted for interests unrelated to famine relief. Human choices again aggravated and caused losses.
Finally, as Davis' work was summarized by Linden, there was an imperial arrogance which both caused and aggravated the suffering. Indeed, Davis is recorded as quoting a prominent British official, Sir John Strachey, as dismissing the losses with "hope and encouragement" because the losses involved only the weakest and the poorest of the populations involved (2006: 198). The British demanded exports, they deemed the suffering to be deserving of their fate, and they enriched themselves without regret.
In the final analysis, as noted by Davis, the El Ninos affected food production whereas human choices affected food availability. Food availability, in turn, was negatively affected by ideology, corruption, and imperial arrogance. The main causes of such severe suffering were human rather than natural.


Works Cited
Linden E. (2006). The Winds of Change. Simon and Schuster: New York, pp. 190-206. Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“What factor was ultimately more responsible for the deaths in the late Essay”, n.d.)
What factor was ultimately more responsible for the deaths in the late Essay. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/history/1507749-what-factor-was-ultimately-more-responsible-for-the-deaths-in-the-late-19th-century-famines-el-nino-or-human-choices
(What Factor Was Ultimately More Responsible for the Deaths in the Late Essay)
What Factor Was Ultimately More Responsible for the Deaths in the Late Essay. https://studentshare.org/history/1507749-what-factor-was-ultimately-more-responsible-for-the-deaths-in-the-late-19th-century-famines-el-nino-or-human-choices.
“What Factor Was Ultimately More Responsible for the Deaths in the Late Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/history/1507749-what-factor-was-ultimately-more-responsible-for-the-deaths-in-the-late-19th-century-famines-el-nino-or-human-choices.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
CHECK THESE SAMPLES - THEY ALSO FIT YOUR TOPIC
El Nino/La Nina
...in the prevailing winds associated with El Nino and the local topography. (Brookfield 1993, p 165) Impacts on Human health The ENSO phenomenon has a considerable potential of affecting human health in various parts of the world. For example in South East Asia, during the 1982-3 El Nino, cases of isolated outbreaks of cholera throught Indonesia that were related to the effects of drought on water supplies were reported .In similar year in Irian Jaya, many deaths of people occurred due to prevailing food shortages. There were also many other reports of gastrointestinal diseases due to shortages of clean water in Indonesia...
11 Pages(2750 words)Essay
America's involvement in international affairs in the late 19th century
... America’s Involvement in International Affairs in the Late 19th Century Provide examples of American involvement in international affairs from your selected articles. Describe the extent to which America’s involvement in international affairs affected global politics. Americans had extensively involved themselves over internal affairs after the Civil War until certain interests over trade, communication, and transportation overseas emerged. In particular, advantages had been perceived with the favor of trade agreements and the possible enormous influence through propagating democratic as well as religious principles across the Caribbean and the Pacific realms. These goals were sought after industrial revolution brought in new set... , this...
2 Pages(500 words)Term Paper
Sexual Standards and Restraints of the Late 19th Century
...daring critique of respectable married life which celebrates temporary transgression but stops short of undermining the institution of marriage completely. The structure of the story is contained in five clearly numbered sections. The first is a short, descriptive introduction, portraying Calixta’s husband Bobinot and four year old son Bibi while the second is a long narrative describing Calizta’s adventure with the dashing former admirer who shelters in her house, and ultimately also her bed, while the storm rages all around them. These two sections are emotionally linked, since the little boy is reassured by his father: “Bibi laid his little hand on his father’s knee and was not afraid” (Chopin, Section I), while...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Chinese Women in late 19th century and early 20th century
...traditional hierarchies and bonds. As a result, change happened intermittently and in the end reflected the needs of the party, rather than the independence of women.3 Work of Women as a Compensation of Marriage Janice E. Stockard also discusses the condition of women from southern China in her book Daughters of the Canton Delta. Stockard interprets a condition, where women in China got adopted to the work in order to compensate their marriages. In late 19th century many married women in Canton delta refused to fulfill the terms of their marriages or to be more precise, the women did not want to stay with their husband and his family. There are many reasons highlighted...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
Welsh Migration in the late 19th century
..., Italians from the Mediterranean, and blacks from Africa. Ships sailing to Tiger Bay in Cardiff discharged commercial and human cargoes and reloaded coal from fields in the north and south and copper and porcelain from Swansea in the southwest. Irish The Irish were the largest group of immigrants to Wales during the second half of the 19th century. O'Leary (2000) recounts the arrival of the poor and hungry Irish that turned from a trickle in the late 18th century into a flood by the mid-19th century. The potato famine in Ireland led many of the Irish to leave their country, with the first group of...
10 Pages(2500 words)Essay
#10 El Nino
...countries and drought and very dry season in Indonesia, Australia, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, and Northeastern South America with altered patterns of tropical storms in the tropical belt (Enfield n.d.). Global warming is also a great contributor to this kind of phenomena. The coastal warming is being associated with a more widespread irregular ocean warming to the International Dateline and it is this Pacific basin-wide phenomenon that forms the link with strange global climate patterns. This component joined to El Niño is called the Southern Oscillation (Trenberth 1997). ENSO (El Nino-Southern Oscillation) is the phenomenon where the atmosphere and ocean...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
19th Century
...The Biology of Psychology al Affiliation The Biology of Psychology Pierre Cabanis, a French psychologist, pioneered biological psychology in the nineteenth century (Leahey, 2004). Cabanis proposed a number of theories and ideas on how the human brain functions. A significant theory that came into being during the 19th century is the theory of unconscious among other theories (Leahey, 2004). The unconscious refers to the processes that occur spontaneously in the human mind, including motivation, memory, and thought processes. This is an interesting concept because human beings may need to understand why individuals do various actions while asleep or in coma (Leahey, 2004). This discussion will consider the explanation of the theory... of...
1 Pages(250 words)Assignment
El Nino
...resulting into floods in eastern areas such as Peru, US, and Chile. The events also result into prolonged droughts in western areas such as the Indonesia and the Philippines. Opinion and Reaction The effects of El Nino are not only felt in countries bordering the Pacific, rather, they are felt all around the world. However, the main effects of this phenomenon are felt in the Americas. These effects result into losses worth millions of dollars and also claims human casualties. However, the effects of the El Nino have been greatly diminished as a result of early warning systems and design of buildings and structures that can withstand the effects of heavy...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
El Nino And Disease
...El Nino And Disease Introduction The El Niño phenomenon scientifically referred to as ENSO – El Niño Southern Oscillation – pertains to a climatic event, which originates from the Pacific Ocean. It is of critical importance and global concern because it often results in a wide array of consequences; regarding weather patterns and climatic conditions. Furtherance is its direct link, with certain human health issues and illnesses. Of core, importance is that, through the effects and influences of El Niño and La Niña, human health individually and as a public is affected fundamentally. On a global scale, there is often an...
7 Pages(1750 words)Essay
The Industrial Revolution in Late 19th Century
...The Industrial Revolution in Late 19th Century America has undergone a series of changes for it to reach its current The most development seen in modern day America dates back to the industrial revolution (Zakim & Kornblith, 2012). This was a period when America’s economy grew and flourished at a fast rate. The last quarter of the 19th century for instance, witnessed great changes in terms of economic and social development. The notable developments in the economic and social sector during the last quarter of the 19th century were the invention of the telephone by Graham Bell in 1876 revolution and the 1885 invention of...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Essay on topic What factor was ultimately more responsible for the deaths in the late 19th century famines: El Nino or human choices for FREE!
logo footer
Contact us:
+16312120006
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • StudentShare App Store
  • StudentShare Google play
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • Miscellaneous
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us