Nobody downloaded yet

The History of Cocaine - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant.
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER91.4% of users find it useful
The History of Cocaine
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
"The History of Cocaine"

Download file to see previous pages It is an important source of nutrition and energy in a region that is lacking in other food sources and oxygen; the vitamins and protein present in the leaves, as well as the cocaine alkaloid, helps provide the energy and strength necessary for steep walks in this mountainous area and days without eating (Winger 45-47).

Although the stimulant and hunger-suppressant properties of coca had been known for many centuries, the isolation of the cocaine alkaloid was not achieved until 1855. Although many scientists had attempted to isolate cocaine, no one had been successful for two reasons: the knowledge of chemistry required was insufficient at the time, and coca does not grow in Europe and is easily ruined during travel.

The cocaine alkaloid was first isolated by the German chemist Friedrich Gaedcke. Gaedcke named the alkaloid "erythroxyline", and published a description in the journal Archives de Pharmacie. In 1856 Friederich Wohler asked Dr. Carl Scherzer, a scientist aboard the Novara (an Austrian frigate sent by Emperor Franz Joseph to circle the globe), to bring him a large amount of coca leaves from South America. In 1859 the ship finished its travels and Wohler received a trunk full of coca. Wohler passed on the leaves to Albert Niemann, a Ph.D. student at the University of Gottingen in Germany, who then developed an improved purification process.
Niemann described every step he took to isolate cocaine in his dissertation entitled On a New Organic Base in the Coca Leaves, which was published in 1860 — it also earned him his Ph.D. and is now in the British Library. ...
He wrote of the alkaloid's "colorless transparent prisms" and said that, "Its solutions have an alkaline reaction, a bitter taste, promote the flow of saliva and leave a peculiar numbness, followed by a sense of cold when applied to the tongue." Niemann named the alkaloid "cocaine" - as with other alkaloids its name carried the "-ine" suffix (from Latin -ina).
In 1879 cocaine began to be used to treat morphine addiction. Cocaine was introduced into clinical use as a local anaesthetic in Germany in 1884, about the same time as Sigmund Freud published his work Uber Coca, in which he wrote that cocaine causes:

...exhilaration and lasting euphoria, which in no way differs from the normal euphoria of the healthy person...You perceive an increase of self-control and possess more vitality and capacity for work....In other words, you are simply normal, and it is soon hard to believe you are under the influence of any drug....Long intensive physical work is performed without any fatigue...This result is enjoyed without any of the unpleasant after-effects that follow exhilaration brought about by alcohol....Absolutely no craving for the further use of cocaine appears after the first, or even after repeated taking of the drug...

In 1885 the U.S. manufacturer Parke-Davis sold cocaine in various forms, including cigarettes, powder, and even a cocaine mixture that could be injected directly into the user's veins with the included needle. The company promised that its cocaine products would "supply the place of food, make the coward brave, the silent eloquent and ... render the sufferer insensitive to pain." By late Victorian era cocaine use had appeared as a vice in literature, for example as the cocaine injected by Arthur Conan Doyle's fictional ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“The History of Cocaine Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from
(The History of Cocaine Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 Words)
“The History of Cocaine Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 Words”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
...? There are many illegal drugs available to people throughout the nation today. From marijuana to methamphetamine, a person who is so inclined could take their pick of any number of illegal substances. Though its popularity has declined somewhat since the 1970’s and 80’s, cocaine is still one of the top drugs of choice among users, abusers, and addicts. Blaise writes, “Cocaine abuse is widespread but rarely admitted. There is no cocaine consumer profile either for social class, age or sex” (pg. 1263). In truth, cocaine is not as insidious a drug as one might suppose. While users can typically hide their use for a little while, extended use of cocaine...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
The Effects of Cocaine
...?Daniel Hadden Nora Kabaji English 100 Research Topic 25 February The Effects of Cocaine Purpose ment The aim of this paper is todescribe how cocaine has grown to be a threat to families irrespective of ethnicity or income bracket. In the past, the abuse of cocaine was presumed to be a past time of the disenfranchised. At present, there are many respectable doctors, pastors, lawyers, and politicians who are addicted to cocaine. Fighting this drug remains a challenge because its closeted addicts are embarrassed about their addiction and will not admit their failings to others. Statement of the Problem In order to effectively fight cocaine addiction among various members of the population, nongovernmental as well as governmental... ...
7 Pages(1750 words)Research Paper
Crark and Cocaine
...,paste,grit,raw,crumbs,hot cakes amongst other names in the streets. The major symptoms and signs that show that a person is actually consuming crack include intense feeling of craving for it, irritability, fatigue, agitation and strong feelings of anger (Abadinsky 19). There are two kinds of cocaine commonly referred to as hydrochloride salt and the freebase.The hydrochloride salt is a type of cocaine that is found in powder form that is dissolved in water and taken through methods such as the intravenously which passes the drug to the vein and the use of intranasal means that is passed through the nose of the users. The freebase is a type of compound that is not neutralized by any type of acid to make...
11 Pages(2750 words)Essay
Cocaine Legalization
...that. With the money saved from the "drug war", these individuals can get more professional and timely help with the problems associated with overuse and addiction.. There should be fewer of these individuals because the demand for cocaine use in general should decrease because it will no longer be perceived as a "dangerous" or an "illegal" act, therefore taking away much of its allure. With fewer people ingesting and a lower rate of cocaine use, there will also be less medical and psychological costs involved. "Cocaine users who met criteria for cocaine withdrawal, compared with those who did not, reported a significantly higher amount of...
6 Pages(1500 words)Personal Statement
Substance disorders - cocaine increased in cocaine users due to poor judgment and psychomotor hyperactivity when high. Substantial personal and societal injury may also result. Cocaine has also been associated with more death from violent behavior than other illicit drugs. (MacCrady & Epstein 1999). Assessment of Substance Misuse in Individuals In order to assess an individuals use or misuse of cocaine, a detailed history must be taken that includes information from the individual, their friends and family and any doctor records. Screening, physical examinations and laboratory test results are also very helpful. A therapist will rely on interviews and self-report questionnaires to assess...
12 Pages(3000 words)Essay
Crack Cocaine
...adults who are trying to look for a good time. Introduce Crack: Crack cocaine is a freebase form of cocaine that can easily be smoked and it is the most addictive form of cocaine. It is a popular choice since it offers a short but intense high to smokers. 3) History of Crack and Cocaine: First developed during the cocaine boom in the 1970s but its abuse did not begin until the mid-1980s. The US Drug Enforcement Agency recounts that by the late 1970s an abundance of Cocaine in its powder form was being shipped to the United States and a large proportion of this came in through Miami, Florida. (Add reference 1) This...
7 Pages(1750 words)Research Paper
...The Illegality and Common Uses of Cocaine The Illegality and Common Uses of Cocaine Cocaine is a highly addictive, illegal, compositionally complex drug that is obtained from the elusive coca plant. It derives its commonly used name from this plant along with ‘ine’ as a reference to the fact that the drug is officially an alkaloid. Cocaine works as a powerful biological stimulant, anaesthetic and also has the effect of suppressing appetite in the user. Due to the extremely addictive nature of the drug and the fact that it is detrimental to the physiology of the user, cocaine is illegal all over the world although it is widely used despite this....
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
...Cocaine Cocaine is a harmful drug consumed in large quantity in the US. Cocaine has a variety of harmful effects on the emotional, psychological, and physical health of the users. Alongside, cocaine offers certain benefits to the users. Withdrawal from cocaine is emotionally demanding as its addiction is strong. This paper discusses the consumption of cocaine, the negative and positive aspects of its use on health and life in general, as well as the withdrawal symptoms. According to the estimate of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), the number of cocaine users in 2008 was 1.9 million, of which the...
3 Pages(750 words)Research Paper
Coca Cola Promoting cocaine the current paper. Focus has also been given upon how the company had dealt with different allegations arising out of its controversial advertisements and the messages which it was actually trying to put across. The paper analyses the advertisements from the perspective of who, when, where, what and why. Additionally some of the marketing characteristics associated with the advertisements have also been analysed vividly. Who Diet coke promoting cocaine or nothing like that? Diet cokes new ad campaign featuring the tag line “You are on Diet Coke” is seen to be drawing much criticism as many claim that the ad is seen to be promoting cocaine and is in reference to the drug (US magazine, 2014)....
10 Pages(2500 words)Essay
Cocaine addiction
...Cocaine Addiction affiliation Cocaine addiction There are many vices in the society we live in. Nevertheless, it is no doubt that the use of cocaine and other types of drugs is among the many issues that affect the community the most. Tracing the root cause of other vices in the society for instance dropping out of school, rise in number of accidents on the roads, increase in homicides, and increase in overall crime rates, we note that all these are happening due to an increase in drug abuse in the society. As discussed in this paper, there is countless benefits that the society can gain from drug abuse regulation. This paper will be addressing one of the most misused drug,...
5 Pages(1250 words)Term Paper
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Essay on topic The History of Cocaine for FREE!
logo footer
Contact us:
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • StudentShare App Store
  • StudentShare Google play
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • Miscellaneous
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us