The paper “Interethnic Conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina” explores initiation of a mechanism that seeks to reconcile the ethnic communities in the country. Research indicates the reconciliation is the best tool for solving conflicts between warring factions…
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The Bosniacs mainly belongs to the Islamic religion, while the Serbs belong to the Orthodox tradition. The Croats, on the other hand, are affiliated to the Roma Catholic. This has seen the three ethnic communities engage each other in one of the worst ethnic violence that took place from 1992 to 1995. The war has been regarded as the worst ethnic violence ever witnessed in Europe since the end of World War II. Latest figures indicate that an estimated 100,000 people out of the country’s 4.4 million people were mercilessly killed in the war and left thousands other injured2. The massacre received wide condemnation from the international community as the war spread throughout Bosnia. The report indicates that Srebrenica was the epicenter of this ethnic violence where an estimated 70,000 Bosniac boys and men were massacred by the Serbian forces. Due to the magnitude and the number of people who died in the war, the International Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia (ICTY) in The Hague terms the massacre an act of genocide. The report indicates that the ethnic cleansing resulted in the displacement of more than two million people. The World Bank report more than 60% houses in Bosnia and Herzegovina and more than 50% of schools were destroyed3.
Bosnia and Herzegovina are ethnically diverse states. The dominant ethnic communities in the two states include the Bosniacs, Serbs, and Croats. These ethnic communities coexisted peacefully for a very long time even though they sometimes found themselves at odds with one another or with the government. However, the peaceful coexistence ended in 1992 when civil war broke out in among the three dominant communities in Bosnia and Herzegovina4. The war began following a disagreement between the three ethnic groups on the political future of the republic just soon after the extrication of Yugoslavia in 1991. Research indicates that the Croats and Muslims voted overwhelmingly in favor of the March 1992 referendum in support of the secession from the former Yugoslavia. This led to the session of the two countries resulting in the declaration of Serbia as an independent state. A report indicates that the minority ethnic group boycotted the election and staged protest throughout the country. This is because they wanted Bosnia and Yugoslavia to remain one single state. The protest also resulted in an ethnic violence, which left more than 100,000 people dead, in a war, which began in 1992 and ended in 1995. Of those who died, a majority estimated at about 80,000 was Bosniacs who belong to the Islamic religion.
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(Interethnic Conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina Research Paper)
“Interethnic Conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina Research Paper”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/history/1488198-the-conflict-between-the-different-ethnic-groups.
In the current world, it is may not be possible to find any society that is purely composed of people of one race or ethnic background. The issue of people from various racial and ethnic backgrounds migrating and mingling with others of different backgrounds has a long history.
The author states that the problem of Bosnia-Herzegovina is one that is not likely going to be solved anytime soon. It will probably be years before healing is able to begin between the Bosniaks, Croats and Serbs. There is still much distrust of Muslims by Christians because of the evils perpetuated during the Ottoman Empire.
The author states that the psychological transformation that resulted not only raised questions about how different ethnic and religious groups could continue living together, but how the evolving Balkan nations might fit into the greater world community, particularly, within a democratic Europe.
In fact there are five types of conflicts; relationship conflicts, data conflicts, conflict of interest and structural and value conflicts. Where people interact on a daily basis there is bound to be a difference in opinion or the way they see various situations.
Historical rival religious and ethnic groups living in Yugoslavia were bitter enemies. They mainly included three groups; the Serbian Christians, the Albanian Muslims, and the Craots that were Catholics. Yugoslavia went into chaos economically as well as politically after the death of the Communist leader Josip Tito.
Some of the most notable cases of genocide in recent history are the following: the American Indian genocide by the United States; the Aborigine genocide in Australia by the British settlers; the Herero and Namaqua genocide in German South West Africa (now Namibia) by the Germans; the Armenian genocide by the Ottoman empire; and most recently, the Bosnian genocide which saw the killing of and the expulsion of many Bosnian Muslims.
The more traditional interstate wars saw the soldiers going off and carrying out wars against one another but distantly on front lines. The modern intra-state war, on the other hand, is much more terrible as it is made up of organized mass killings of common people and this is in fact the main aim of the war.
Bosnia was a multiethnic society where the Bosnian Muslims were a minority and weak community. Ethnic conflicts are caused by structural factors such as the weakness of a state, changes in the military and geographical location (Jesse & Williams, 2011). The Bosnians had surrendered their weapons in exchange for protection by UN peacekeepers.
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