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Theory - Term Paper Example

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Name: Course: Tutor: Date: Keck and Sikkink’s theory of transnational activism explaining contemporary progress of human rights Keck and Sikkink and Margaret Sikkink originally formulated the network notion of human rights practice in international studies…
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Theory

Download file to see previous pages... Activists in international associations seek to influence outcomes of policy as well as change the terms and the character of debate. The various attributes of networks constitute core network conception represented in Keck and Sikkink theory of transnational activism. One of the key values to the theory is values, which motivate network actors to work together because of shared values or principle idea embedded in international human rights laws. Keck and Sikkink works revolve around ideas or values to diffuse progressive ideas in order to aid institutionalize value in political process and bring government practice to comply with established norms. Network is made of various types of actors like international and domestic non-governmental organizations, private foundations, local movements, media, churches, intellectuals and parts of governmental apparatus and politicians. Hence, international and domestic NGOs play a significant role since they are characterized by coordination and cooperation between actors in the network and exchange information, services, resources and personnel (Tang 229-230). Transnational human rights associations are capable of doing a lot in guaranteeing the protection of human rights. For instance, transnational human rights network participate in drafting international human rights laws, advocate and diffuse norms inherent in laws and promote socialization of norms in domestic politics. Moreover, transnational networks place human rights problems of a nation on the international agenda, legitimize and empower the claims of repressed groups in a country and mobilizes international pressure against nations that violate the norms. Since most members in transnational activism networks have no economic or military power, one may wonder how transnational activism accomplishes their task in a world filled with power struggles. First, actors in transnational activism derive moral authority from the legitimacy inherent in international norms of human rights. Since ideas and norms have constructive power to define state identities and interests transnational activists use their persuasive power to enforce policy changes. Transnational activists are “teachers of norms” as well as authors of norms thus they persuade policy makers to change their minds regarding what is right and alter public perception of what governments do. Hence, transnational activism makes difference by standing on the right side and defining what is right (Tang 231-232). Nevertheless, moral power of transnational activists never guarantees moral success in actual political processes; hence, members of the network of international activists employ sets of strategies to gain from strengths of norms in order to change certain human rights practices. Strategies for transnational activists on human rights fall in two categories soft politics and hard politics, with soft politics refereeing to strategies that depend on information and moral persuasion. Contract between domestic and international organizations, transnational activists uncover facts human rights violations within a country and circulate information regarding state repression unknown to the outside world. These transnational activists of human rights then embark on campaigns that aim at shaming the international community by exposing inconsistency of state behavior and values it claims to aspire. Transnational activists employ hard politics with essential strategy in this area being leverage politics where network members ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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