Cold War Involvement on the Nations of the Middle East and Africa Date Introduction The Cold War was the state of conflict between nations without using any military force against one another. Instead, this form of war was conducted between countries (specifically the United States and the Soviet Union) using both economic and political actions; the countries involved tried to ruin each other’s reputation through propaganda to provoke war between the subject countries of the conflict.1 During the Cold War there were two major forces led by the two superpowers of the time, which had economic, political, and socio-cultural strength, while the countries split to …
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This is because of the suspicious relationship that developed between these two nations at the time, whereby nations split into two with some supporting the US, and the others remained in support the USSR. Thus, even within these nations, leaders acted in a divided manner with some supporting the ideologies of the USSR communism, while other countries supported the capitalistic view of the US, and this propagated the social and political division of nations.4 Cold war involvement in Africa Because of its endowment with resources, Africa was a battleground for Cold War for quite a long period that led to many wars, which both sides of the conflict, namely the United States and the Soviet Union blamed on each other. The harassment that was conducted by the Americans and the UK on Mugabe and Al-Bashir of Sudan was heaped on China and Russia with the aim of making the west to appear friendly and clean to Africa.5This has proved to be the new stage being set for fresh crop of Cold War in the African soil, as at the time USSR and US were engaged in Cold War, Africa was still involved in it, as some of the African states were surrogates of the two. Africa is a rich provider of the world’s major raw material for the production of goods for the industries in the west because a country is only able to engage in war if it has enough economic power and political influence for the purpose of protecting its interests.6 Therefore, surrogate African States provide support to one of the side in the cold war for their own interests and for their leaders selfish interest; such support normally involved the use of their state resources, which involved workforce in form of soldiers when they are required. As a result of the Cold War, Zimbabwe being a surrogate to one of the main two countries involved in Cold War, their leader Robert Mugabe murdered and violently overthrew the opposition to the side that supported the Britons, Americans and the western powers.7Moreover, because of the Cold War, nationalists and African leaders were frequently overthrown when they did not support the nations in such warfare. For instance, famous leaders like Kwame Nkrumah, Patrice Lumumba or Eduardo Mondlane among others were victims of claims that they were supporters of the Chinese or Russians and the East policies. In these cases, other African leaders have more often than not found themselves behind bars without the hope of ever being freed.8 In addition, the involvement of Africa in the Cold War has greatly affected the continent in terms of its human, society and economy; these impacts are still very fresh with the slow growth of the African continent attributed to the Cold War. Furthermore, African resources that involved agricultural outputs and minerals were
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The ability of institutions in a country to develop into advanced and democratic centres has been is influenced by a number of factors, chief among them being the cultural situation of the country. Countries like German, the United Kingdom, the United States and France have independent and democratic institutions thanks to their cultural maturity (Acemoglu, Johnson & Robinson, 2001).
The Effects of the Cold War on the Middle East. If the Cold War is deemed as the communism’s conflict with the capitalist west under the headship of the United States, communism decidedly becomes defeated. The Soviet leadership’s expansionist desire to force communism upon the rest of the earth panicked the wealthy capitalist west whose reaction to the communist expansionism eventually kindled the war.
He used that term in the context of how world at that time was under the threat of nuclear warfare, and so how there may be “peace that is no peace”, calling it the permanent “cold war”. In the same context, he directly referred to that Cold War as a kind of ideological conflict that was happening between the Soviet Union and other Western countries.
As a result, it is crucial to evaluate the effects and influence of the First World War in the Middle East, concerning how it changed the region or acted as a catalyst for change to the region, as it is known today and even the years during and after the war.
However, as stated by Mottiar (2002), most democracies are viewed as consolidated democracies in terms of their democracy being internalized attitudinally, constitutionally and behaviourally. In terms of viewing democracies behaviourally, the consolidation of democracy takes effect when there is no existence of social, political, national or institutional structures that exploit resources for purposes of realizing their objectives and establishing a regime considered non-democratic.
The author of this essay gives a definition of the Cold War. He assumes that the Cold War can be defined as the conflicts of interests between the two superpowers, the United States of America and the Soviet Union, in the post Second World War period. It existed from 1947 to 1991. In the end the author makes an analytical conclusion.
The conclusion from this study states that the economies of the MENA region are heterogeneous and diverse in nature. The economies of the various countries in the MENA region range from free-market economies to hydrocarbon exporting economies. Collectively, the countries of the MENA region are most strongly established for the production and export of oil and energy.
gan as a result of several war time suspicions and events that transpired between the Soviet Union and America in their joint battle against the Nazi Germany. The Middle Eastern countries also played a crucial role during cold war as it became a center of interest to both the
Thus, Yalta Conference in Crimea, Soviet Union, in February 1945 between the “Big Three” allies of the Second World War was one such event that structured the start of the Cold War (The Cold War, “Disney 1,” par. 1). Middle East throughout the Cold War had become a ground for rivalry.
During the cold war a US spy plane which was spying over Cuba realized nuclear mussel spots being constructed. The missiles were to be used by the Soviet Union to reach the US as part of their invasions in the cold war as suggested by Smith (154). As a result the then US president Kennedy formed a group of government officials to discuss the crisis.
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