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History of Medicine and Science - Essay Example

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Name Professor Course Date 1) Discuss the Scientific Revolution in the 16th- 17th centuries. How was it a change from the past? Who were the important intellectual leaders of it? (give at least three examples)What obstacles slowed its progress? The scientific revolution is a period in time associated with the 16th and 17th century which was evident through advances in the field of physics, medicine, astronomy, chemistry, and biology (Gribbin, 6).This period was a major transformation of ancient and medieval paradigms of nature…
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Download file to see previous pages To this end, medieval scholars such as Thomas Aquinas supported Aristotle’s theory concerning the material world ( Gribbin, 47).The theory stated that the world was made up of four elements such as water, fire, air, and earth. Moreover, the medieval scholars used the theory of the four elements to formulate the principle alchemy. In this regard, they believed that the four elements formed part of the human body to create the four humours. These were blood, yellow bile, phlegm and black bile. Furthermore, medieval civilization believed in the philosophy of a Greek astronomer known as Ptolemy ( Gribbin, 104). In this regard, the Ptolemaic system espoused that the earth was placed at the centre of everything in the universe. However, following the advent of the scientific revolution, these medieval lines of thought were challenged by eminent intellectual leaders. Notable scholars in the scientific revolution included people such as Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1543). Evidently, Copernicus is credited with publishing “De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium” also known as “On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres” (Gribbin, 398). In this regard, Copernicus theorised that the Earth revolved annually, around through sun through its daily, rotational movements on its axis. This theory was a direct challenge on the long held theory that the Earth was situated centrally at the universe with all the planets, Sun and moon rotating around it. Galileo Galilee was another eminent Italian physicist, astronomer and philosopher associated with the scientific revolution (Gribbin, 298). To this end, he created a telescope which produced a magnification 30 greater than that seen by the natural eye. In this regard, he used the telescope to make numerous astronomical discoveries such as sunspots, valleys and mountains present on the moon’s surface, various phases evident on the Venus planet, and Planet Jupiter’s four greatest moons. To this end, he published the “Dialogues on the Two Chief Systems of the World.” Sir Isaac Newton was another great scientist of the scientific revolution engaged in the field of physics and mathematics. He is credited with publishing the “Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica” also known as the Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy” ( Gribbin, 476). Evidently, his findings exhibited how the gravity as a universal force was acting on all the objects within the universe. The scientific revolution scholars faced several obstacles that slowed down the progress of the scientific revolution. For example, Nicholas Copernicus was first afraid to publish his works “Concerning the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres.” Evidently, he was frightened at the possibility of provoking the theological views of the Church pertaining to the Church. On the other hand, Galileo’s work on the ‘Dialogues on the Two Chief Systems of the World’ was challenged by the Church. It contributed to Galileo being placed under house arrest. 2) Explain the Scientific Method. Who were the pioneer thinkers who developed it in the 17th-18th centuries? Why was it a central concept in the growth ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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