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Russia - Term Paper Example

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Name: University: Course: Tutor: Date: Causes of the Russian Revolution of 1917 Introduction Russia in the early 19th century was a massive empire compromising more than 165 million people stretching from Pacific to Poland. Numerous religions, cultures, and languages made it difficult to control the empire due to changing political, social and economic conditions thus occasioning the Revolution of 1917 (Wade 4)…
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Download file to see previous pages The negative effects of World War 1 were responsible for sparking Russian Revolution in 1917 since the government was experiencing a shortage in food reserves, ammunition, factories and low morale among the soldiers. Corrupt Czarist government and massive treason among the top military ranks created a crisis that paralyzed the normal national life. The peasants and workers in factories experienced poverty and denounced the war and killed the rich peasants in order to seize control of productive agricultural land (Wade 5). Russia was predominantly an agricultural economy and the clergy, nobility and royal families owned much of the agricultural land and controlled much of the agricultural production. The Czarist government did little to improve the economic system and a majority of the peasants in the villages suffered from diseases and extreme poverty. The economic system had created an imbalance in the social structure thus hindering education, public health and medical relief thus occasioning discontent among the masses that were addicted to vodka due to misery and poverty (Wade 6). Workers strikes were considered as the only option to the ruthless and repressive Czarist government in dealing with protesting workers and Russian soldiers fired at the protestors. Subsequently, the heavy losses suffered during the World War 1 undermine the strength and morale of Russian soldiers and many of them deserted their battle fronts to join the factory workers and peasants in the ongoing revolution (Wade 7). Other attributable causes of the Revolution include the increase in politicized urban workforce especially ironworks and factories that associated themselves with industrial society. Although Czarist government had tried to entrench socialist trade unions, such unions were remained neutral during workers protests. The expanding population in Russian cities caused social problems like poor housing, bad wages and disregard for employment rights. The censuring of books, newspapers and unwarranted police swoops on dissenting citizens created mass discontent among the middle class and ultimately led to the demand of freedom of expression (D’Agostino 27). Why Bolsheviks prevailed in Civil War and control of Russia By the end of February 1917, two organisations that include Provisional Executive Committee of the Petrograd Soviet of Workers and Provisional Committee of the Duma had emerged. The first one represented the social revolutionaries, factory workers, Bolsheviks and Mensheviks. The Czarist ministers were held under house arrest, and Czar Nicholas II abdicated on at the beginning of March. A provisional coalition government was entrenched and was soon recognized by the allied powers as the legitimate successor of Czarist government (D’Agostino 28). However, a civil war broke in June 1918 with the Whites including the liberals, monarchists and socialists rebelling against the Reds who included the Bolshevik regime. Bolshevik regime was worried that Whites would eventually free Czar and the royal family members thus ultimately leading to restoration of the previous monarchy. However, Czar and his immediate family members were shot dead in July 1918 thus demoralising the efforts of the Whites. Bolsheviks considered themselves as revolutionary working class that was determined at addressing the needs of the peasants and ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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