The Black Death refers to the virulent plague which devastated Europe from 1347 – 1352, causing more than twenty million deaths. The word plague has its roots in the Greek medical term plege, for ‘stroke.’ …
Download file to see previous pages...
The bacillus normally persists as a mild infection in the bloodstream of infected rats. The rat flea, or Xenopsylla cheopis, is the vector which transmits the bacillus to other rats. In unusual circumstances, such as the absence of an adequate rodent population, the flea may bite and infect humans. The human immune system is very vulnerable to the bacillus and the plague is usually fatal1. A study of the origin, spread, characteristics and significance of the Black Death in the Middle Ages shows that it was one of the greatest catastrophes in human history. The origin of the Black Death can be traced through historical accounts to Central Asia: “The earliest documented appearance --- occurred in 1346, in the Mongol territory called the Khanate of the Golden Horde” in present-day southern Russia2. The plague crossed biological barriers in Central Asia to attack and decimate the marmot population. These dead mammals were skinned by Asian trappers and the hides became a part of the merchandise which travelled down the famous ‘Silk Road’ from China, across Asia and to the Crimea.3 The outbreak is reported to have emerged after earthquakes and strange atmospheric conditions. The pestilence first ravaged the teeming populations of China and India, and moved to Persia, supposedly resulting in twenty-four million casualties in the East. There are accounts of horrendous casualties in China, India, Mesopotamia, Cairo, Syria and Cyprus. Gabriele de’ Mussis, a notary of Piacenza, writes that “In the year 1346, in eastern parts an immense number of Tartars and Saracens fell victims to a sudden and mysterious death.” ...
Tartars and Saracens fell victims to a sudden and mysterious death.”5 The Tartars besieged the Black Sea port of Caffa (modern Feodosia), a Genoese settlement in the Crimea, where Italian merchants had taken refuge. The Tartars reportedly catapulted plague-infected corpses into Caffa, spreading the infection to the Genoese, who in turn carried it to Genoa. By 1348, the plague had moved from the seaports to reach the inland areas of Alexandria, Tunisia, Italy and France. It jumped across the seas to Britain, Ireland and Norway. It continued to spread until, “By 1350 virtually all of western and central Europe has been affected.”6 The plague moved eastwards to Poland and the Baltic lands the next year and then back to Central Asia in 1353, when it finally subsided. Historians currently estimate that, between 1346 –1353, the Black Death may have caused 50 million deaths in Europe. This constituted about 60 percent of the population. The characteristic symptoms of the Black Death show it to have been a lethal combination of the Bubonic plague and the pneumonic plague. At the onset of the bacillus’ entry into the human bloodstream, the immune system responded with fever and the swelling of the lymph nodes in an attempt to flush out the contagion. These painful, swollen lymph nodes in the neck, armpits and groin, were called buboes: hence Bubonic plague. These swellings were referred to as the gavocciolo. Boccaccio states that some of these swellings “were egg-shaped while others were roughly the size of the common apple.”7 By the third day the victim experienced high fever, diarrhea and delirium and the skin showed dark splotches due to the rupture of blood capillaries and the clotting of blood beneath the epidermis. This darkening of the skin may be the
...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Death Penalty- Should we abolish Capital punishment?
The follow of capital punishment is as aged as government itself. For most time in the history, it has not been believed to be contentious. Since medieval times most Governments have penalized a broad selection of misdeeds by death and also have demeanor executions as a custom of the management of criminal law.
This was one of the worst battles that humankind had to fight against nature. It was perhaps nature’s way of ensuring ecological balance during a time when Medieval Europe was already suffering from a Malthusian crises arising out of several crop failures (last decade of thirteenth century), famines over the previous decades and the increasing population pressure.
The Black Death, aka the Bubonic or Black Plague, was responsible for at least 40 million deaths and decimated nearly 200,000 towns throughout Europe. The Black Death refers to both the bubonic and pneumonic plagues. Of the two diseases, the pneumonic plague is the deadliest killing its victims in just a few days.
By maintaining the primacy and integrity of the chant lines, medieval sacred music incorporated the following: responsorial, antiphonal, procession, octaves and organum. Polyphony dates back to 8th and 9th century in which it appeared as parallel organum-a chant which strictly involved parallel progression.
Life in the Middle Ages during the time of feudalism brought a social structure that left a wide division between those who held money, and those that worked that same land for little to no pay. Those of wealth and privilege could look forward to a good diet, while those that were of poor could do little more than their daily work.
Nonetheless, starvation did not contribute many deaths since citizens engaged in other means of earning their livelihood. Sommerville noted that England suffered from the effects of the Great Starvation that affected the country between 1315 and 1317 although there is no enumeration of people who died due to starvation.
The High Middle Ages were preceded by the Early Middle Ages and followed by the Late Middle Ages, which by convention ends around 1500. The key historical trend of the High Middle Ages was the rapidly increasing population of Europe, which brought about great social and political change from the preceding era.
eared during the fourteenth century Europe, along with many variations, like the pneumonic and septicemic plague, which affected the lungs and blood respectively. Bubonic plague is a disease seen chiefly amongst rodents, and is caused owing to the transmission of a bacterium
The essay "Women in the Middle Ages" shows that medieval England was not an agreeable place for women; they perpetually had some major difficulties in a period when numerous men existed and lived brutal lives. Women were given different treatment depending on their social and economic background.
The Roman Catholic churches or Roman Catholicism is considered to be a populated community, which has spread on a global context. The operations of the churches are divided on the basis of responsibilities. The churches are headed by bishops who
6 Pages(1500 words)Research Paper
GOT A TRICKY QUESTION? RECEIVE AN ANSWER FROM STUDENTS LIKE YOU!
Let us find you another Research Paper on topic The Black Death in the Middle Ages for FREE!