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His2543_essay questions - Essay Example

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ROLE OF INVENTORS, MACHINES AND GOVERNMENTS IN INDUSTRIALIZATION Date Role of inventors, machines and governments in industrialization Introduction The industrial revolution was marked by the use of superior machines to produce goods. Energy from industrial processes was derived from fuel as opposed to animal sources…
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Download file to see previous pages They established efficient processes to increase farm yield and to produce more numerous goods of superior quality. A good example is Jethro Tull who invented the seed drill in 1701.1 Seeds could be planted at specific depths in proper rows and this was a tremendous improvement in Agriculture. Before the invention farmers would scatter seeds and this was very wasteful as most seeds would not take root. Many other machine inventors would contribute to the mechanization and automation of industrial processes. Discussion Natural resources were utilized to develop machine production processes. Coal and water power were a source of fuel for industrial processes. Construction of buildings, tools and machines was done using iron ore. Rivers served as means of inland transportation of materials, goods and people. In addition harbors for merchant ships were established.2 Industrialization began with the textile industry where the invention of the spinning machine spurred immense growth. The water frame which was invented in 1769 by Richard Arkwright ran on waterpower from rapid streams. Samuel Crompton invented the advance spinning mule in 1779 and it ran on water power and it produced stronger, consistent and finer thread than previous spinning machines.3 There was a ready market for cotton worldwide and supply for cotton from the American South. Advances in the textile industry triggered industrial development in various sectors. In transport, the landmark invention was the steam engine in 1765 by James Watt. Water transport exhibited tremendous improvement in England. A network of human made waterways/canals was established. By 1850, inland channels that spanned 4,200 miles reduced the transport cost for both finished goods and raw materials. English factories were powered by steam driven machinery towards the end of the eighteenth century. Steam driven locomotives were used to transport iron and various raw materials on land. George Stephenson successfully spearheaded the construction of the railroad in 1821.4 Indeed the invention and subsequent perfection of the locomotive had tremendous effects on industrialization. Manufacturers had a cheap means to transport finished goods and raw materials. Numerous jobs were created for both miners (provided coal for steam engines and iron for the rail tracks) and railroad workers. It is important to note that the fishing and agricultural industries were bolstered by the railway line as markets in distant cities were opened up. The following nineteenth century saw the emergence of novel inventions by Americans. In 1831, Cyrus McCormick invented the reaper and it greatly boosted wheat production in America. The telegraph was invented by Samuel Morse in 1837.5 In 1851, Singer advanced the sewing machine by adding a foot treadle. Alexander Graham Bell made a big impact on communication when he invented the telephone in 1876. Communication was greatly instrumental in boosting trade of industrial goods. Industrialization began in Britain and the process was soon replicated in France, Germany, Belgium and the United States.6 Governments played a crucial role in doing away with restrictive laws that prohibited trade thereby promoting industrialization. Sustained industrial growth and competition necessitated the expansion of markets for raw materials and the sale of finished products. Industrialization nurtured the capitalist system and this culminated in the adoption of new ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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