Comparative Foreign Policy Table of Contents I. Foreign Policy Theories, Use by Foreign Policy Analysts 3 II. Liberalism, Realism- Key Analytical Components, Comparison and Contrast 3 III. On the US Policy Towards China in 'Human Rights and Trade' Article 5 A…
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On the Necessity of Individual Level of Analysis in Understanding of Case Policy Outcome 7 I. Foreign Policy Theories, Use by Foreign Policy Analysts Theories are proposed explanations relating to the workings of things. In foreign policy studies, theories refer to the major theories relating to the field of study, and they are mainly liberalism, realism, Marxism, and constructivism in some texts. Theories are essentially tools that foreign policy analysts use to make sense of the actions of states in relation to each other, and in the context of global economic, political arenas of actioni ii. As the definition suggests, theories are the distillation of insights, writings, studies and observations about the actions of states in the real world, distilled on the assumption that states act in certain ways, based on certain underlying motivations, dynamics, and historical circumstances. Theories are used on the assumption that given a set of conditions, states will act in defined ways moving forward. iii II. Liberalism, Realism- Key Analytical Components, Comparison and Contrast Realism posits that the key characteristic of the international order is disorder, or anarchy and chaos. In the absence of an organizing principle, or a body of law to mediate disputes and the general conduct of nations when dealing with other nations, the operative principle is power. Therefore, nations act and watch out for their own interests in the main. Self-interest and self-preservation, the advancement of one's own interests, is the rule and the defining consideration when crafting foreign policy. Realism has several implications for the way the world system of politics and economics is shaped. Power is the currency, and where one state amasses power, that automatically translates to threats to the inner integrity of other states. Balance of power becomes an important consideration. Moreover, viewed from a realist perspective, the power currency translates to an obsession with projecting power and defense capabilities, as reflected in military might. Nations then act out and craft foreign policy in relation to that perceived and actual power residing on their military capabilities. Military power then becomes a central analytical component when reading the actions of nations in the international stage, with some superpowers such as China acting in ways that are different from those with some power, and those who have no power at all. Constraint and independence in crafting foreign policy are reliant on the size of a nation's military capabilities. At the weak end of that spectrum, very weak nations are the most constrained. Middle powers meanwhile yield considerable power, and act in ways such as forming alliances to balance out the power of the strong states. iv Liberalism, in contrast, views the world order not in terms of balance of power and military might, but in terms of interdependence, for instance through the interdependence of nation economies, and how such interdependence shapes more cooperative stances, a greater emphasis on world bodies that foster cooperation and dialogue, such as the United Nations, and nations, especially less powerful states, towing the line in terms of adhering to the rules of the global market. Market forces are relevant considerations, and so are the economic and political implications of interdependence as shaping foreign policy for different countries. The operative principle here is that of
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Thus, the United States formulates its foreign policies in a way that will keep its fundamental interests like protecting its Cold War allies and maintaining its commercial ties with oil producing allies. This research paper is designed in such a way that it bring together fundamental approach and enquiry into the way the US adjusts its foreign policy system to maintain its interests in periods where there is a risk of major oil price hikes.
The author states that many contemporary scholars have tried to explain how international affairs are conducted and what foreign policies should be concerned with, but their views are very divergent and a policy maker has to decide the guiding theory or view. Three main competing paradigms: realism, liberalism and constructivism have different strands.
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Though as a field of study it began only in the 20th century (Platzgraff) over the years, academic interest in the foreign policies of nations has increased. In the past century events World Wars, Cold War, development of economic blocs, globalization and liberalisation in international trade have profoundly affected the foreign policy of the nations.
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However, the past decade has reported stronger ties between these two nations owing to China’s explosive economic growth. This state of affairs has implications on Australia’s foreign policy alignments and its association with other
This is majorly as a result of the rate at which businesses are going global currently. Because these policies are always national, different countries usually have different foreign policies. This can be because of
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