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And short questions about western civilization - Essay Example

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The Course Date Western Civilization 1. Christianity and Islam Both Christianity and Islam have shared beliefs and practices such as one God, god’s messengers, scriptures and revelations, judgment day, God’s infinite power and plan, dignified status of man, holy book, faith completed by work, salvation by beliefs and practice…
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Essay and short questions about western civilization
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Download file to see previous pages Muslims also believe in the holy war and observe the pilgrimage to Mecca which Christians neither believe in nor practice. During the Medieval period, both Christianity and Islam promulgated their religious beliefs and practices in territories where the majority existed. Christianity employed the use of missionaries whereas Islam employed offensive practices such as conquests, political rule and returning crusaders in spreading their faith (Spielvogel 238-243). 3. The expansion of trade The expansion of trade during the High Middle Ages resulted from developments in voyages of exploration by Vikings, growth of states, contacts with the Muslim world and the arrival of the Portuguese. Vikings exchanged goods as they sailed along trade centers in search of profit. The existence of various environmental zones and agricultural practices influenced trade to flourish. These resulted to the evolution of settlement as well as prosperity that in turn contributed to urbanization and the growth of states. In addition, contacts with Muslim merchants in the Trans Saharan trade involved the trade in kola nuts, gold, ivory, and slaves. The arrival of the Portuguese opened an outlet for West African manufactured products such as cloths. The utilization of Arab script and Muslim officials in complex bureaucracies remained as the impact of the expansion of trade on medieval society (Spielvogel 252-254). 5. The decline of papacy The papacy of the Roman Catholic Church had reached the peak of its power with the doctrine of temporal universal authority over secular rulers and fullness of power. However, the claims of temporal supremacy kept losing ground due to the growth of European secular monarchs. This created conflicts between papacy and the territorial states it never conquered. The claim by King Philip IV to tax French clergy became the underlying issue that caused the conflict. Philip then employed a tactic to capture and put pope Boniface VIII to trial, the shock that led to his death, following the pope’s position on the matter. Consequently, this tactic and the death of Boniface led to the decline of the authority and prestige of papacy. To this effect, no subsequent popes have dared to renew the extravagant claims that Boniface VIII asserted (Spielvogel 273-304). 7. Reformation of the Catholic Church The struggle between the moderate Catholic reformers and the conservatives continues to exist with the hope that compromises would be made in formulation of doctrinal definitions. However, the Council of Trent failed to resolve the religious differences that resulted from Protestant revolt thereby making the Catholic Church to undertake some measures of reformations. Some measures that the Catholic Church took to reform its self and to combat Protestantism included the establishment of theological seminaries for the training of priests in every diocese. In addition, the Catholic Church developed a distinct body of doctrine as well as creating a unified church governed by an acknowledged supremacy of popes with authority over councils and bishops. The Catholic Church also became organized as a Christian denomination among other denominations. Moreover, the Catholic Church designed a doctrinal pattern and an organizational framework that would remain significantly unchanged for a period of four hundred years (Spielvogel 376-411). 8. The renaissance The renaissance existed as ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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