“How does a transnational approach modify New Zealand's cultural history? Is it useful?” Introduction New Zealand (hither after will be referred as NZ) can be called as a country of immigrants where indigenous tribal communities namely Maori and Pakeha are living there traditionally…
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The Waitangi treaty recognised the British Sovereignty in NZ and also offered protection to the interests of Maori’s in their traditional lands.The preamble of this treaty in Maori spotlights the creation of a government that would safeguard the interest of tribal community rangatiratanga. As per Brooking and Rebel (1995), NZs immigration policies customarily gave preference to European settlers especially from UK , Protestant Anglo-Celtic origins. NZ due to foreigner settlements , developed a new culture that materialized over centuries of relative separation, leaving from pacific cultures and adopting into the social cultures of hapu, whanau and iwi. This research essay will discuss about the culture , media , the urban society , the missionary and literary that prevailed in New Zealand in 1950 and will analyse how transnational culture has impacted the NZs culture . Culture Cross breed between Maori and Europeans were known as Pakeha. The signing of Treaty of Waitangi can be regarded as the founding stone of modern citizenship. The NZ was transformed into a major agricultural producer for UK due to the ingress of Pacific citizens in the late 1950s. Later , settlers from Asia also ingressed into NZ1. Maori pre-European culture was oral and footed upon small independent sub-tribes residing in harbours ,valleys , ridges and sculpted hills. Armed conflict stories are much available in the Maori tribal history.Both polygamy and cannibalism were the common features of Maori culture. Tools were made from stones which was known as pounamu and tuhua. For weaving and other purposes , flax was employed. Initial trade in these products was in the barter system. Natural resources like sea, forest and waterways were regarded as sacred and exploitation of these natural resources were under strict supervision namely tapu (holiness),and manna carried over by tohunga.(priests)2. Edward Ned Kelly was the leader of the Kelly Gang.Nel Kelly story was very popular in New Zealand through the ballads , folklore which praised the bush proscribers as the compelling character of freedom fighters and confrontation to the British authorities in NZ. In the 19th century , bushrangers were regarded as outlaws who frightened the bush country in NZ and Australia. The kelly gang was considered to the last generation of bushrangers in NZ3. “Cinemas, TVs & Radios” As per Department of Statistics (1975), there were about 600 cinema houses and 36.4 million cinema visitors in NZ in 1950.In 1950s, cinema admission rates were 2 shillings and 10 pence whereas today it is around 9.06 dollars4. Government owned TV New Zealand channels namely TV One and TV2 is free –to-air channels whereas Australian –owned TV 3 and its music channel is in operation in NZ. Some appealing foreign films and documentaries along with Maori subtitle and locally produced programs in Maori are being telecasted through Maori TV channel in NZ. In 1950, Kiwis paid an annual licence fee of more than ? 1 to the post office as the fee for such service as radio was under the state control then. Radio Sport is very active in sports news and commentaries. Radio New Zealand broadcasts current news and cultural programms and is available all through NZ. Local gigs are being broadcasted by the bNet, the student managed radio station,and new alternative music is being broadcasted by the Auckland’s 95Bfm. Tribal radio station namely Waikato’s Radio Tainui which has the country-wide network in NZ. Further , there are other players
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